The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-115) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Juan Li, Xian-lin Zhao contributed equally to this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
WFT, study concept and design; YXL, XHP and MHW, acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; JL and XLZ, drafting of the manuscript; WFT, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; YXL and SFZ, statistical analysis; WFT, obtained funding; YLL and HG, material support; WFT, study supervision. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common inflammatory disease of the pancreas accompanied by serious metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the specific metabolic process of this disease is still unclear. Characterization of the metabolome may help identify biomarkers for AP. To identify potential biomarkers, this study therefore investigated the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic profile of AP.
Fourteen male adult Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: the AP group, in which AP was induced by retrograde ductal infusion of 3.5% sodium taurocholate; and the sham operation group (SO), in which rats were infused with 0.9% saline. Blood samples were obtained 12 hours later and a 600 MHz superconducting NMR spectrometer was used to detect plasma metabolites. Principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis after orthogonal signal correction (OSC-PLS-DA) were used to analyze both longitudinal Eddy-delay (LED) and Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) spectra.
Differences in plasma metabolites between the two groups were detected by PCA and PLS-DA of 1HNMR spectra. Compared with the SO group, plasma levels of lactate (δ 1.3, 1.34, 4.1), valine (δ 0.98, 1.02), succinic acid (δ 2.38), 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HB, δ 1.18), high density lipoprotein (HDL, δ 0.8), and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, δ 2.78, 5.3) were elevated in the AP group, while levels of glycerol (δ 3.58, 3.66), choline (δ 3.22), trimethylamine oxide (TMAO, δ 3.26), glucose (δ 3–4), glycine (δ 3.54), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, δ 1.34) and phosphatidylcholine (Ptd, δ 2.78) were decreased.
AP has a characteristic metabolic profile. Lactate, valine, succinic acid, 3-HB, HDL, UFA, glycerol, choline, TMAO, glucose, glycine, VLDL, and Ptd may be potential biomarkers of early stage AP.
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