Skip to main content

28.01.2020 | Research Article | Ausgabe 4/2020 Open Access

Molecular Imaging and Biology 4/2020

(2S, 4R)-4-[18F]Fluoroglutamine for In vivo PET Imaging of Glioma Xenografts in Mice: an Evaluation of Multiple Pharmacokinetic Models

Molecular Imaging and Biology > Ausgabe 4/2020
Maxwell WG Miner, Heidi Liljenbäck, Jenni Virta, Joni Merisaari, Vesa Oikonen, Jukka Westermarck, Xiang-Guo Li, Anne Roivainen
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11307-020-01472-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.



The glutamine analogue (2S, 4R)-4-[18F]fluoroglutamine ([18F]FGln) was investigated to further characterize its pharmacokinetics and acquire in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) images of separate orthotopic and subcutaneous glioma xenografts in mice.


[18F]FGln was synthesized at a high radiochemical purity as analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. An orthotopic model was created by injecting luciferase-expressing patient-derived BT3 glioma cells into the right hemisphere of BALB/cOlaHsd-Foxn1nu mouse brains (tumor growth monitored via in vivo bioluminescence), the subcutaneous model by injecting rat BT4C glioma cells into the flank and neck regions of Foxn1nu/nu mice. Dynamic PET images were acquired after injecting 10–12 MBq of the tracer into mouse tail veins. Animals were sacrificed 63 min after tracer injection, and ex vivo biodistributions were measured. Tumors and whole brains (with tumors) were cryosectioned, autoradiographed, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. All images were analyzed with CARIMAS software. Blood sampling of 6 Foxn1nu/nu and 6 C57BL/6J mice was performed after 9–14 MBq of tracer was injected at time points between 5 and 60 min then assayed for erythrocyte uptake, plasma protein binding, and plasma parent-fraction of radioactivity to correct PET image-derived whole-blood radioactivity and apply the data to multiple pharmacokinetic models.


Orthotopic human glioma xenografts displayed PET image tumor-to-healthy brain region ratio of 3.6 and 4.8 while subcutaneously xenografted BT4C gliomas displayed (n = 12) a tumor-to-muscle (flank) ratio of 1.9 ± 0.7 (range 1.3–3.4). Using PET image-derived blood radioactivity corrected by population-based stability analyses, tumor uptake pharmacokinetics fit Logan and Yokoi modeling for reversible uptake.


The results reinforce that [18F]FGln has preferential uptake in glioma tissue versus that of corresponding healthy tissue and fits well with reversible uptake models.

Unsere Produktempfehlungen

e.Med Interdisziplinär


Für Ihren Erfolg in Klinik und Praxis - Die beste Hilfe in Ihrem Arbeitsalltag als Mediziner

Mit e.Med Interdisziplinär erhalten Sie Zugang zu allen CME-Fortbildungen und Fachzeitschriften auf

e.Med Orthopädie & Unfallchirurgie


Mit e.Med Orthopädie & Unfallchirurgie erhalten Sie Zugang zu CME-Fortbildungen der Fachgebiete, den Premium-Inhalten der dazugehörigen Fachzeitschriften, inklusive einer gedruckten Zeitschrift Ihrer Wahl.

e.Med Radiologie


Mit e.Med Radiologie erhalten Sie Zugang zu CME-Fortbildungen des Fachgebietes Radiologie, den Premium-Inhalten der radiologischen Fachzeitschriften, inklusive einer gedruckten Radiologie-Zeitschrift Ihrer Wahl.

Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 4/2020

Molecular Imaging and Biology 4/2020 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Radiologie

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Radiologie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.