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27.02.2019 | Original Article | Ausgabe 3/2019

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 3/2019

3D Mammometric Changes in the Treatment of Idiopathic Gynecomastia

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery > Ausgabe 3/2019
Konstantin C. Koban, Konstantin Frank, Lucas Etzel, Thilo L. Schenck, Riccardo E. Giunta
Wichtige Hinweise

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Three-dimensional surface imaging (3DSI) has shown promise for plastic surgeons to objectively assess changes in body contour and breast volume.


To assess the surgical outcome after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy (BSM) and water jet-assisted liposuction (WAL) as treatment for idiopathic gynecomastia, using 3DSI to document changes regarding nipple–areolar complex (NAC) and breast volume.


Thirty male patients (Simon II A to B) receiving BSM and WAL were enrolled. Eight subjects received additional mastopexy and NAC reduction. Use of a Vectra 3D Imaging System® before and 6 months after surgery provided data regarding changes of NAC placement and NAC and breast dimensions. The sum volume of intraoperatively approximated lipoaspirate before and after centrifugation and mastectomy specimens quantified using water displacement were compared with 3D-assessed differences in volume.


When compared to the NAC dimensions defined during surgery, patients receiving NAC reductions showed nonsignificant postoperative changes in NAC dimensions. Patients without additional mastopexy showed a significant (p < 0.001) vertical (15.7 ± 14.3%) and horizontal (17.1 ± 15.0%) reduction in NAC diameter. 3D volume changes (92.8 ± 26.4 mL) showed significant differences (p < 0.001) 6 months after surgery compared to the intraoperatively measured lipoaspirate before (182 ± 54.5 mL) and after (120 ± 34.6 mL) centrifugation.


Although it is clear that patient satisfaction must remain the prime focus of surgical body contouring, 3DSI has proven valuable to objectively demonstrate both the anticipated outcome and further findings regarding treatment of idiopathic gynecomastia.

Level of Evidence IV

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.​springer.​com/​00266.

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