The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare knee kinematics and stability following either triangular or anatomical reconstruction of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) and posterior oblique ligament (POL).
In a cadaveric model (12 knees), the stability and kinematics following two experimental sMCL and POL reconstructions were compared in sMCL- and POL-deficient knees versus normal knees. The first reconstruction was a triangular reconstruction of the sMCL and POL, while the second involved an anatomical reconstruction of the sMCL and POL. All knees were tested through four different states. The changes in valgus angles, external rotation, and internal rotation were measured in the normal and sMCL- and POL-deficient knees, as well as in the knees that had undergone the two different forms (triangular and anatomical) of reconstruction.
After initial sectioning of the sMCL and POL, we observed significantly increased valgus rotation, external rotation, and internal rotation at all knee flexion angles (0°, 20°, 30°, 60°, 90°). Additionally, passive stability testing demonstrated a significant increase in tibial internal rotation following triangular reconstruction compared with anatomical reconstruction at knee flexion angles of 20° and 30°. A significant increase in internal rotation was present following triangular reconstruction compared with anatomical reconstruction at 20° (mean difference = 2.77) (P = 0.008) and 30° (mean difference = 0.99) (P < 0.001) of knee flexion.
This study suggests that anatomical sMCL and POL reconstruction produces slightly better biomechanical stability than triangular reconstruction. However, triangular reconstruction may restore a near-normal knee joint is both less invasive and more practical.