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Raine syndrome (RS) – an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is caused by a biallelic mutation in the FAM20C gene. Some of the most common clinical features include generalized osteosclerosis with a periosteal bone formation, dysmorphic face, and thoracic hypoplasia. Many cases have also been reported with oro-dental abnormalities, and developmental delay. Most of the cases result in neonatal death. However, a few non-lethal RS cases have been reported where patients survive till adulthood and exhibits a heterogeneous clinical phenotype. Clinical diagnosis of RS has been done through facial appearance and radiological findings, while confirmatory diagnosis has been conducted through a molecular study of the FAM20C gene.
A 6-year-old girl was born to healthy third degree consanguineous parents. She presented with facial dysmorphy, delayed speech, and delayed cognition. Radiography showed small sclerotic areas in the lower part of the right femur, and an abnormally-shaped skull with minimal sclerosis in the lower occipital region. Computer tomography scan of the brain revealed mild cortical atrophy, and MRI scan of the brain showed corpus callosal dysgenesis with the absence of the rostral area. Chromosome banding at 500 band resolution showed a normal female karyotype. No quantitative genomic imbalance was detected by aCGH. Further study conducted using Clinical Exome Sequencing identified a homozygous missense variation c.1228 T > A (p.Ser410Thr) in the exon 6 of FAM20C gene – a likely pathogenic variant that confirmed the clinical diagnosis of RS. The variant was confirmed in the proband and her parents using Sanger sequencing. Prenatal diagnosis during subsequent pregnancy revealed heterozygous status of the fetus, and a normal carrier child was delivered at term.
The syndrome revealed markedly variable presentations such as facial dysmorphy and developmental delay, and was localized to diffuse bone osteosclerosis. Clinical indications, striking radiological findings and molecular testing of FAM20C gene confirmed the diagnosis of RS. A rarity of the disorder and inconsistent phenotype hindered the establishment of genotype-phenotype correlations in RS. Therefore, reporting more cases and conducting further research would be crucial in defining the variable radiologic and molecular defects of the lethal and non-lethal forms of this syndrome.