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03.01.2019 | Retinal Disorders | Ausgabe 3/2019

Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 3/2019

A new dye based on anthocyanins from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) for chromovitrectomy in humans: clinical trial results

Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 3/2019
Rafael R. Caiado, Cristiane Peris, Eduardo B. Rodrigues, Michel Eid Farah, André Maia, Octaviano Magalhães Jr, Eduardo Novais, Acácio Souza Lima-Filho, Mauricio Maia
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00417-018-04204-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



To test the applicability of the acai dye at a 25% concentration for identifying the posterior hyaloids and internal limiting membranes (ILMs) during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in human eyes with macular holes (MHs).


This study included 25 patients with chronic idiopathic MHs. The exclusion criteria included glaucoma, previous significant ocular conditions, and previous ocular surgeries except uncomplicated cataract. Ten surgeons performed 23-gauge four-port PPV, phacoemulsification, posterior hyaloid detachment, ILM peeling guided by dye staining, and perfluoropropane injection. The patients remained prone for 5 days postoperatively. The patients were evaluated postoperatively after 1, 30, and 180 days. The surgeons completed a questionnaire regarding the dye’s staining abilities.


The posterior hyaloids and ILMs stained purple in all eyes. The final best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly (p < 0.001) from preoperatively (1.37 ± 0.29) to 180 days postoperatively (1.05 ± 0.43). The MHs closed in 76% of eyes.


The acai dye at a 25% concentration identified posterior hyaloids and ILMs during PPVs in humans. Dye toxicity was unlikely.

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