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01.12.2017 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 1/2017

A patient-safety and professional perspective on non-conveyance in ambulance care: a systematic review

Zeitschrift:
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Remco H.A. Ebben, Lilian C.M. Vloet, Renate F. Speijers, Nico W. Tönjes, Jorik Loef, Thomas Pelgrim, Margreet Hoogeveen, Sivera A.A. Berben
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s13049-017-0409-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

This systematic review aimed to describe non-conveyance in ambulance care from patient-safety and ambulance professional perspectives. The review specifically focussed at describing (1) ambulance non-conveyance rates, (2) characteristics of non-conveyed patients, (3) follow-up care after non-conveyance, (4) existing guidelines or protocols, and (5) influencing factors during the non-conveyance decision making process.

Methods

We systematically searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and reference lists of included articles, in June 2016. We included all types of peer-reviewed designs on the five topics. Couples of two independent reviewers performed the selection process, the quality assessment, and data extraction.

Results

We included 67 studies with low to moderate quality. Non-conveyance rates for general patient populations ranged from 3.7%–93.7%. Non-conveyed patients have a variety of initial complaints, common initial complaints are related to trauma and neurology. Furthermore, vulnerable patients groups as children and elderly are more represented in the non-conveyance population. Within 24 h–48 h after non-conveyance, 2.5%–6.1% of the patients have EMS representations, and 4.6–19.0% present themselves at the ED. Mortality rates vary from 0.2%–3.5% after 24 h, up to 0.3%–6.1% after 72 h. Criteria to guide non-conveyance decisions are vital signs, ingestion of drugs/alcohol, and level of consciousness. A limited amount of non-conveyance guidelines or protocols is available for general and specific patient populations. Factors influencing the non-conveyance decision are related to the professional (competencies, experience, intuition), the patient (health status, refusal, wishes and best interest), the healthcare system (access to general practitioner/other healthcare facilities/patient information), and supportive tools (online medical control, high risk card).

Conclusions

Non-conveyance rates for general and specific patient populations vary. Patients in the non-conveyance population present themselves with a variety of initial complaints and conditions, common initial complaints or conditions are related to trauma and neurology. After non-conveyance, a proportion of patients re-enters the emergency healthcare system within 2 days. For ambulance professionals the non-conveyance decision-making process is complex and multifactorial. Competencies needed to perform non-conveyance are marginally described, and there is a limited amount of supportive tools is available for general and specific non-conveyance populations. This may compromise patient-safety.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Prisma 2009 checklist (DOC 63 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Additional file 2: Appendix 1 Search strategies (DOCX 16 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM2_ESM.docx
Additional file 3: Appendix 2 Reasons full text exclusion (n = 67 articles) (DOCX 24 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM3_ESM.docx
Additional file 4: Appendix 3 Quality of systematic reviews (n = 2) (DOC 305 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM4_ESM.doc
Additional file 5: Appendix 4 Quality of experimental studies (n = 4) (DOC 425 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM5_ESM.doc
Additional file 6: Appendix 5 Quality of quantitative studies (n = 53) (DOC 5545 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM6_ESM.doc
Additional file 7: Appendix 6 Quality of qualitative studies (n = 8) (DOC 910 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM7_ESM.doc
Additional file 8: Appendix 7 Non-conveyance rates and patient characteristics (DOCX 48 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM8_ESM.docx
Additional file 9: Appendix 8 Guidelines/protocols/triage criteria (DOCX 29 kb)
13049_2017_409_MOESM9_ESM.docx
Literatur
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