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01.11.2010 | Current Opinion | Ausgabe 11/2010

Clinical Pharmacokinetics 11/2010

A Quantitative Framework and Strategies for Management and Evaluation of Metabolic Drug-Drug Interactions in Oncology Drug Development

New Molecular Entities as Object Drugs

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics > Ausgabe 11/2010
Autoren:
PhD Dr Karthik Venkatakrishnan, Michael D. Pickard, Lisa L. von Moltke

Abstract

This article outlines general strategies for the management and evaluation of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) resulting from perturbation of clearance of investigational anticancer drug candidates by concomitantly administered agents in a drug development setting, with a focus on drug candidates that cannot be evaluated in first-in-human studies in healthy subjects. A risk level classification is proposed, based on quantitative integration of knowledge derived from preclinical drug-metabolism studies evaluating the projected percentage contribution [fi(%)] of individual molecular determinants (e.g. cytochrome P450 isoenzymes) to the overall human clearance of the investigational agent. The following classification is proposed with respect to susceptibility to DDIs with metabolic inhibitors: a projected maximum DDI expected to result in a ≤1.33-fold increase in exposure, representing a low level of risk; a projected maximum DDI expected to result in a >1.33-fold but <2-fold increase in exposure, representing a moderate level of risk; and a projected maximum DDI expected to result in a ≥2-fold increase in exposure, representing a potentially high level of risk.
For DDIs with metabolic inducers, the following operational classification is proposed, based on the sum of the percentage contributions of enzymes that are inducible via a common mechanism to the overall clearance of the investigational drug: ≪25%, representing a low level of risk; <50%, representing a moderate level of risk; and ≥50%, representing a potentially high level of risk. To ensure patient safety and to minimize bias in determination of the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), it is recommended that strong and moderate inhibitors and inducers of the major contributing enzyme are excluded in phase I dose-escalation studies of high-risk compounds, whereas exclusion of strong inhibitors and inducers of the contributing enzyme (s) is recommended as being sufficient for moderate-risk compounds. For drugs that will be investigated in diseases such as glioblastoma, where there may be relatively frequent use of enzyme-inducing antiepileptic agents (EIAEDs), a separate dose-escalation study in this subpopulation is recommended to define the RP2D. For compounds in the high-risk category, if genetic deficiencies in the activity of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme are known, it is recommended that poor metabolizers be studied separately to define the RP2D for this subpopulation.
Whereas concomitant medication exclusion criteria that are utilized in the phase I dose-escalation studies will probably also need to be maintained for high-risk compounds in phase II studies unless the results of a clinical DDI study indicate the absence of a clinically relevant interaction, these exclusion criteria can potentially be relaxed beyond phase I for moderate-risk compounds, if supported by the nature of clinical toxicities and the understanding of the therapeutic index in phase I. Adequately designed clinical DDI studies will not only inform potential relaxation of concomitant medication exclusion criteria in later-phase studies but, importantly, will also inform the development of pharmacokinetically derived dose-modification guidelines for use in clinical practice when coupled with adequate safety monitoring, as illustrated in the prescribing guidance for many recently approved oncology therapeutics.

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