Skip to main content

01.12.2012 | Methodology | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

A rapid and scalable density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites

Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Mark Kennedy, Matthew E Fishbaugher, Ashley M Vaughan, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Rachasak Boonhok, Narathatai Yimamnuaychok, Nastaran Rezakhani, Peter Metzger, Marisa Ponpuak, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Stefan H Kappe, Jen CC Hume, Scott E Lindner
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-421) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

A provisional patent has been filed on this purification method on August 1st, 2012 (US Patent Application Number 61678541).

Authors’ contributions

Developed purification method: MK, SEL; Assessed P. yoelii purification and infectivity: MK, MF; Assessed P. falciparum purification and infectivity: AMV, NR, PM, SEL; Assessed P. vivax purification and infectivity: RP, RB NY and SEL; Assessed reductions of microbial burden: MF; Provided project supervision: MP, JS, SHK, JCCH, SEL; Wrote the Manuscript and Analysed the Data: MK, AMV, JCCH, SEL. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Malaria remains a major human health problem, with no licensed vaccine currently available. Malaria infections initiate when infectious Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes during their blood meal. Investigations of the malaria sporozoite are, therefore, of clear medical importance. However, sporozoites can only be produced in and isolated from mosquitoes, and their isolation results in large amounts of accompanying mosquito debris and contaminating microbes.


Here is described a discontinuous density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites that maintains parasite infectivity in vitro and in vivo and greatly reduces mosquito and microbial contaminants.


This method provides clear advantages over previous approaches: it is rapid, requires no serum components, and can be scaled to purify >107 sporozoites with minimal operator involvement. Moreover, it can be effectively applied to both human (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) and rodent (Plasmodium yoelii) infective species with excellent recovery rates.


This novel method effectively purifies viable malaria sporozoites by greatly reducing contaminating mosquito debris and microbial burdens associated with parasite isolation. Large-scale preparations of purified sporozoites will allow for enhanced in vitro infections, proteomics, and biochemical characterizations. In conjunction with aseptic mosquito rearing techniques, this purification technique will also support production of live attenuated sporozoites for vaccination.
Additional file 1: Representative pre- and post-purification sporozoite numbers tested in optimal conditions.(PDF 179 KB)
Additional file 2: The composition of the solvent used to produce the Accudenz gradient greatly affects sporozoite recovery.(PDF 248 KB)
Additional file 3: Representative pre- and post-purification sporozoite numbers tested with different accudenz concentrations.(PDF 169 KB)
Additional file 4: The relative centrifugal force applied to the Accudenz gradient greatly affects sporozoite recovery.(PDF 247 KB)
Authors’ original file for figure 1
Authors’ original file for figure 2
Authors’ original file for figure 3
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2012

Malaria Journal 1/2012 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin

Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin

2017 | Buch

Rheumatologie aus der Praxis

Entzündliche Gelenkerkrankungen – mit Fallbeispielen

Dieses Fachbuch macht mit den wichtigsten chronisch entzündlichen Gelenk- und Wirbelsäulenerkrankungen vertraut. Anhand von über 40 instruktiven Fallbeispielen werden anschaulich diagnostisches Vorgehen, therapeutisches Ansprechen und der Verlauf …

Rudolf Puchner

2016 | Buch

Ambulant erworbene Pneumonie

Was, wann, warum – Dieses Buch bietet differenzierte Diagnostik und Therapie der ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie zur sofortigen sicheren Anwendung. Entsprechend der neuesten Studien und Leitlinien aller wichtigen Fachgesellschaften.

Santiago Ewig

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Innere Medizin und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.

© Springer Medizin