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18.05.2017 | Review Article | Ausgabe 11/2017 Open Access

Clinical Pharmacokinetics 11/2017

A Review of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Immunogenicity of Vedolizumab

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics > Ausgabe 11/2017
Autoren:
Maria Rosario, Nathanael L. Dirks, Catherine Milch, Asit Parikh, Michael Bargfrede, Tim Wyant, Eric Fedyk, Irving Fox

Abstract

Vedolizumab is a humanized anti-α4β7 integrin monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks trafficking of memory T cells to inflamed gut tissue by inhibiting the α4β7-mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) interaction. Approved for treating patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD), vedolizumab is administered as a 300 mg intravenous infusion. Vedolizumab undergoes a rapid, saturable, non-linear, target-mediated elimination process at low concentrations and a slower, linear, non-specific elimination process at higher concentrations. At therapeutic concentrations, vedolizumab primarily undergoes linear elimination. From population pharmacokinetic modeling, the vedolizumab terminal elimination half-life (t ½ β) was estimated to be 25.5 days; linear clearance (CLL) was similar for patients with UC (0.159 L/day) and CD (0.155 L/day). Extreme low albumin concentrations and extreme high body weight values were potentially clinically important predictors of vedolizumab CLL. Other factors, including concomitant therapy use (methotrexate, azathioprine, mercaptopurine, or aminosalicylates) or prior tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antagonist use, had no clinically relevant effects on CLL. A positive exposure–efficacy relationship for clinical remission and clinical response was apparent for vedolizumab induction therapy in patients with UC or CD. On average, patients with higher albumin, lower fecal calprotectin (UC only), lower C-reactive protein (CD only), and no prior TNF-α antagonist use had a higher probability of remission. Off drug, 10% of patients with UC or CD were positive for anti-drug antibodies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, exposure–efficacy relationships, and immunogenicity of vedolizumab.

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