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01.12.2019 | Primary research | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

Cancer Cell International 1/2019

A six-gene prognostic model predicts overall survival in bladder cancer patients

Cancer Cell International > Ausgabe 1/2019
Liwei Wang, Jiazhong Shi, Yaqin Huang, Sha Liu, Jingqi Zhang, Hua Ding, Jin Yang, Zhiwen Chen
Wichtige Hinweise

Supplementary information

Supplementary information accompanies this paper at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12935-019-0950-7.

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The fatality and recurrence rates of bladder cancer (BC) have progressively increased. DNA methylation is an influential regulator associated with gene transcription in the pathogenesis of BC. We describe a comprehensive epigenetic study performed to analyse DNA methylation-driven genes in BC.


Data related to DNA methylation, the gene transcriptome and survival in BC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). MethylMix was used to detect BC-specific hyper-/hypo-methylated genes. Metascape was used to carry out gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-penalized Cox regression was conducted to identify the characteristic dimension decrease and distinguish prognosis-related methylation-driven genes. Subsequently, we developed a six-gene risk evaluation model and a novel prognosis-related nomogram to predict overall survival (OS). A survival analysis was carried out to explore the individual prognostic significance of the six genes.


In total, 167 methylation-driven genes were identified. Based on the LASSO Cox regression, six genes, i.e., ARHGDIB, LINC00526, IDH2, ARL14, GSTM2, and LURAP1, were selected for the development of a risk evaluation model. The Kaplan–Meier curve indicated that patients in the low-risk group had considerably better OS (P = 1.679e−05). The area under the curve (AUC) of this model was 0.698 at 3 years of OS. The verification performed in subgroups demonstrated the validity of the model. Then, we designed an OS-associated nomogram that included the risk score and clinical factors. The concordance index of the nomogram was 0.694. The methylation levels of IDH2 and ARL14 were appreciably related to the survival results. In addition, the methylation and gene expression-matched survival analysis revealed that ARHGDIB and ARL14 could be used as independent prognostic indicators. Among the six genes, 6 methylation sites in ARHGDIB, 3 in GSTM2, 1 in ARL14, 2 in LINC00526 and 2 in LURAP1 were meaningfully associated with BC prognosis. In addition, several abnormal methylated sites were identified as linked to gene expression.


We discovered differential methylation in BC patients with better and worse survival and provided a risk evaluation model by merging six gene markers with clinical characteristics.
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