Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-018-0186-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
People with severe mental disorders (SMDs) are associated with increased risk of infectious disease including human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and hepatitis viruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and other types of hepatitis viruses because of high-risk behaviors compared to the general population. The prevalence of HIV in people with SMDs is higher in females than in males. Unlike HIV, the prevalence of HBV and HCV is higher in males than in females. This study aimed to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence and estimated gender difference in the risk of HIV, HBV, and HCV in people with SMD.
Literature search was performed using the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus. Publications were screened according to predefined inclusion criteria. A qualitative and quantitative analysis was undertaken for this systematic review. Eighteen materials published from 1993 to 2017 were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Random-effect model was used to calculate weighted prevalence, odds ratio (OR), and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).
12,290 citations were identified and 18 articles including 11,175 participants were included. The results of our meta-analysis show that the prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV in people with SMD was 7.59% (95% CI 4.82–11.75), 15.63% (95% CI 7.19–30.69), and 7.21% (95% CI 4.44–11.50), respectively. The prevalence of HIV was higher in women (8.25%) than men (7.04%), but the prevalence of HBV and HCV was higher in men than women (18.91% versus 12.02% and 9.16% versus 5.43% for HBV and HCV in men versus women, respectively). A meta-analysis of included studies demonstrated a significantly increased risk of HBV (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.17–2.53) and HCV (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.16–3.20) infections in men compared to women in people with SMD. However, no significant association was observed between gender and HIV. The funnel plot and Egger’s regression tests provided no evidence of substantial publication bias in the prevalence and gender difference in association for HIV, HBV, and HCV in people with SMD.
In our review, the prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV was high. The prevalence of HBV is significantly higher than HIV and HCV. There was a significantly increased risk of HBV and HCV infections in men compared to women. No significant association was observed between gender and HIV. People with SMDs warrant greater emphasis in efforts to identify and treat HIV, HBV and HCV.