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01.12.2016 | Technical notes | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 1/2017

Accelerated two-dimensional cine DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance using compressed sensing and parallel imaging

Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance > Ausgabe 1/2017
Xiao Chen, Yang Yang, Xiaoying Cai, Daniel A. Auger, Craig H. Meyer, Michael Salerno, Frederick H. Epstein



Cine Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) provides accurate quantitative imaging of cardiac mechanics with rapid displacement and strain analysis; however, image acquisition times are relatively long. Compressed sensing (CS) with parallel imaging (PI) can generally provide high-quality images recovered from data sampled below the Nyquist rate. The purposes of the present study were to develop CS-PI-accelerated acquisition and reconstruction methods for cine DENSE, to assess their accuracy for cardiac imaging using retrospective undersampling, and to demonstrate their feasibility for prospectively-accelerated 2D cine DENSE imaging in a single breathhold.


An accelerated cine DENSE sequence with variable-density spiral k-space sampling and golden angle rotations through time was implemented. A CS method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for the reconstruction of under-sampled multi-coil spiral data. Seven healthy volunteers and 7 patients underwent 2D cine DENSE imaging with fully-sampled acquisitions (14–26 heartbeats in duration) and with prospectively rate-2 and rate-4 accelerated acquisitions (14 and 8 heartbeats in duration). Retrospectively- and prospectively-accelerated data were reconstructed using BLOSM-SENSE and SENSE. Image quality of retrospectively-undersampled data was quantified using the relative root mean square error (rRMSE). Myocardial displacement and circumferential strain were computed for functional assessment, and linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accelerated acquisitions to fully-sampled reference datasets.


For retrospectively-undersampled data, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or lower rRMSE at rate-2 and lower rRMSE at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE (p < 0.05, ANOVA). Similarly, for retrospective undersampling, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or better correlation with reference displacement and strain data at rate-2 and better correlation at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE. Bland-Altman analyses showed similar or better agreement for displacement and strain data at rate-2 and better agreement at rate-4 using BLOSM-SENSE compared to SENSE for retrospectively-undersampled data. Rate-2 and rate-4 prospectively-accelerated cine DENSE provided good image quality and expected values of displacement and strain.


BLOSM-SENSE-accelerated spiral cine DENSE imaging with 2D displacement encoding can be acquired in a single breathhold of 8–14 heartbeats with high image quality and accurate assessment of myocardial displacement and circumferential strain.
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