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19.03.2020 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 7/2020

The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 7/2020

Accuracy of right atrial pressure estimation using a multi-parameter approach derived from inferior vena cava semi-automated edge-tracking echocardiography: a pilot study in patients with cardiovascular disorders

The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging > Ausgabe 7/2020
Stefano Albani, Bruno Pinamonti, Tatiana Giovinazzo, Marco de Scordilli, Enrico Fabris, Davide Stolfo, Andrea Perkan, Caterina Gregorio, Giulia Barbati, Pietro Geri, Marco Confalonieri, Francesco Lo Giudice, Giovanni D. Aquaro, Paolo Pasquero, Massimo Porta, Gianfranco Sinagra, Luca Mesin
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10554-020-01814-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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The echocardiographic estimation of right atrial pressure (RAP) is based on the size and inspiratory collapse of the inferior vena cava (IVC). However, this method has proven to have limits of reliability. The aim of this study is to assess feasibility and accuracy of a new semi-automated approach to estimate RAP. Standard acquired echocardiographic images were processed with a semi-automated technique. Indexes related to the collapsibility of the vessel during inspiration (Caval Index, CI) and new indexes of pulsatility, obtained considering only the stimulation due to either respiration (Respiratory Caval Index, RCI) or heartbeats (Cardiac Caval Index, CCI) were derived. Binary Tree Models (BTM) were then developed to estimate either 3 or 5 RAP classes (BTM3 and BTM5) using indexes estimated by the semi-automated technique. These BTMs were compared with two standard estimation (SE) echocardiographic methods, indicated as A and B, distinguishing among 3 and 5 RAP classes, respectively. Direct RAP measurements obtained during a right heart catheterization (RHC) were used as reference. 62 consecutive ‘all-comers’ patients that had a RHC were enrolled; 13 patients were excluded for technical reasons. Therefore 49 patients were included in this study (mean age 62.2 ± 15.2 years, 75.5% pulmonary hypertension, 34.7% severe left ventricular dysfunction and 51% right ventricular dysfunction). The SE methods showed poor accuracy for RAP estimation (method A: misclassification error, ME = 51%, R2 = 0.22; method B: ME = 69%, R2 = 0.26). Instead, the new semi-automated methods BTM3 and BTM5 have higher accuracy (ME = 14%, R2 = 0.47 and ME = 22%, R2 = 0.61, respectively). In conclusion, a multi-parametric approach using IVC indexes extracted by the semi-automated approach is a promising tool for a more accurate estimation of RAP.

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