Skip to main content
main-content
Erschienen in: Endocrine 3/2022

16.09.2022 | Original Article

Acetate restores hypothalamic-adipose kisspeptin status in a rat model of PCOS by suppression of NLRP3 immunoreactivity

verfasst von: Kehinde S. Olaniyi, Stephanie E. Areloegbe, Mosunmola B. Oyeleke

Erschienen in: Endocrine | Ausgabe 3/2022

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Abstract

Purpose

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex reproductive event that is delineated by endocrine/metabolic disorders. Alteration of kisspeptin status in the hypothalamus and adipose tissue is critical to increased endocrine/metabolic derangements in PCOS individuals, aggravating the clinical manifestation of PCOS and its complications. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are crucial modulators of metabolic homeostasis. However, the role of SCFAs, particularly acetate on hypothalamic-adipose kisspeptin status (HAKS) in PCOS model is unknown. The present study hypothesized acetate as a key player in restoration of deranged HAKS, associated with experimental PCOS model.

Methods

Three groups (n = 6/group) of female Wistar rats (120–150 g) were used. The groups were treated (po) for 21 days with vehicle, letrozole (1 mg/kg) with/without acetate (200 mg/kg) respectively.

Results

Letrozole-treated animals had impaired glucose homeostasis, elevated testosterone, leptin and LH/FSH ratio and decreased GnRH and adiponectin with ovarian tissues revealing degenerated follicles and disrupted morphology. These animals also showed increased concentration of hypothalamic triglyceride (TG)/total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acid (FFA), and decreased concentration of TG/TC/FFA in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with an increase in hypothalamic and VAT malondialdehyde, NF-κB/TNF-α and decreased glutathione/G6PD and hypothalamic but not VAT kisspeptin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in the hypothalamus and VAT and all these changes were attenuated by acetate.

Conclusions

Altogether, the present results demonstrate that PCOS is characterized with hypothalamic-adipose inflammation, associated with immunohistochemical expression of NLRP3 with significant alteration of hypothalamic but not adipose kisspeptin. The results suggest that acetate restores kisspeptin status in PCOS animals. This beneficial effect is accompanied by repressed NLRP3 immunoreactivity.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat A.S. Melo, R.A. Ferriani, P.A. Navarro, Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice. Clinics 70, 765–769 (2015) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef A.S. Melo, R.A. Ferriani, P.A. Navarro, Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice. Clinics 70, 765–769 (2015) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
2.
Zurück zum Zitat A.H. Balen, L.C. Morley, M. Misso, S. Franks, R.S. Legro, C.N. Wijeyaratne, E. Stener-Victorin, B.C. Fauser, R.J. Norman, H. Teede, The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance. Hum. Reprod. Update 22(6), 687–708 (2016) PubMedCrossRef A.H. Balen, L.C. Morley, M. Misso, S. Franks, R.S. Legro, C.N. Wijeyaratne, E. Stener-Victorin, B.C. Fauser, R.J. Norman, H. Teede, The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance. Hum. Reprod. Update 22(6), 687–708 (2016) PubMedCrossRef
3.
Zurück zum Zitat U. Zafar, Z. Memon, K. Moin, S. Agha, J.A. Hassan, D. Zehra, Prevalence of PCOS with associated symptoms and complications at Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi. J. Adv. Med. Med. Res. 30(4), 1–9 (2019) CrossRef U. Zafar, Z. Memon, K. Moin, S. Agha, J.A. Hassan, D. Zehra, Prevalence of PCOS with associated symptoms and complications at Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi. J. Adv. Med. Med. Res. 30(4), 1–9 (2019) CrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat A.Z. Rutkowska, E. Diamanti-Kandarakis, Polycystic ovary syndrome and environmental toxins. Fertil. Steril. 106(4), 948–958 (2016) PubMedCrossRef A.Z. Rutkowska, E. Diamanti-Kandarakis, Polycystic ovary syndrome and environmental toxins. Fertil. Steril. 106(4), 948–958 (2016) PubMedCrossRef
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM‐Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long‐term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum. Reprod. 19(1), 41–47 (2004) CrossRef Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM‐Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long‐term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum. Reprod. 19(1), 41–47 (2004) CrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat J. Liu, Q. Wu, Y. Hao, M. Jiao, X. Wang, S. Jiang, L. Han, Measuring the global disease burden of polycystic ovary syndrome in 194 countries: Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Hum. Reprod. 36(4), 1108–19. (2021) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef J. Liu, Q. Wu, Y. Hao, M. Jiao, X. Wang, S. Jiang, L. Han, Measuring the global disease burden of polycystic ovary syndrome in 194 countries: Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Hum. Reprod. 36(4), 1108–19. (2021) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
7.
Zurück zum Zitat M. Peigné, D. Dewailly, Long term complications of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In Annales d’endocrinologie (2014) (Vol. 75, No. 4, pp. 194–199). Elsevier Masson M. Peigné, D. Dewailly, Long term complications of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In Annales d’endocrinologie (2014) (Vol. 75, No. 4, pp. 194–199). Elsevier Masson
8.
Zurück zum Zitat R. Azziz, C. Marin, L. Hoq, E. Badamgarav, P. Song, Health care-related economic burden of the polycystic ovary syndrome during the reproductive life span. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90(8), 4650–4658 (2005) PubMedCrossRef R. Azziz, C. Marin, L. Hoq, E. Badamgarav, P. Song, Health care-related economic burden of the polycystic ovary syndrome during the reproductive life span. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90(8), 4650–4658 (2005) PubMedCrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat C. Meng, Nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a meta-analysis. J. Int. Med. Res. 47(9), 4083–94. (2019). PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef C. Meng, Nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a meta-analysis. J. Int. Med. Res. 47(9), 4083–94. (2019). PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
10.
Zurück zum Zitat W.M. Wolf, R.A. Wattick, O.N. Kinkade, M.D. Olfert, Geographical prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome as determined by region and race/ethnicity. Int. J. Environ. Res. public health 15(11), 2589 (2018) PubMedCentralCrossRef W.M. Wolf, R.A. Wattick, O.N. Kinkade, M.D. Olfert, Geographical prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome as determined by region and race/ethnicity. Int. J. Environ. Res. public health 15(11), 2589 (2018) PubMedCentralCrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat S. Li, D. Zhu, H. Duan, Q. Tan, Genetic investigation into ethnic disparity in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 29(10), 878–882 (2013) PubMedCrossRef S. Li, D. Zhu, H. Duan, Q. Tan, Genetic investigation into ethnic disparity in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 29(10), 878–882 (2013) PubMedCrossRef
12.
Zurück zum Zitat S. Brakta, D. Lizneva, K. Mykhalchenko, A. Imam, W. Walker, M.P. Diamond, R. Azziz, Perspectives on polycystic ovary syndrome: is polycystic ovary syndrome research underfunded? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 102(12), 4421–4427 (2017) PubMedCrossRef S. Brakta, D. Lizneva, K. Mykhalchenko, A. Imam, W. Walker, M.P. Diamond, R. Azziz, Perspectives on polycystic ovary syndrome: is polycystic ovary syndrome research underfunded? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 102(12), 4421–4427 (2017) PubMedCrossRef
13.
Zurück zum Zitat E. Kandaraki, A. Chatzigeorgiou, C. Piperi, E. Palioura, S. Palimeri, P. Korkolopoulou, M. Koutsilieris, A.G. Papavassiliou, Reduced ovarian glyoxalase-I activity by dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess: a causative link to polycystic ovarian syndrome. Mol. Med. 18(8), 1183–1189 (2012) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef E. Kandaraki, A. Chatzigeorgiou, C. Piperi, E. Palioura, S. Palimeri, P. Korkolopoulou, M. Koutsilieris, A.G. Papavassiliou, Reduced ovarian glyoxalase-I activity by dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess: a causative link to polycystic ovarian syndrome. Mol. Med. 18(8), 1183–1189 (2012) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
15.
Zurück zum Zitat E. Diamanti-Kandarakis, A.G. Papavassiliou, Outstanding questions. Trends Mol. Med. 7(12), 324–32. (2006) CrossRef E. Diamanti-Kandarakis, A.G. Papavassiliou, Outstanding questions. Trends Mol. Med. 7(12), 324–32. (2006) CrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat L. Ibanez, E. Oberfield Sh, S.F. Witchel, R.J. Auchus, R.J. Chang, E. Codner et al. An international consortium apdate: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome in adolescence. Horm. Res. Paediatr. 8896, 371–395 (2017). CrossRef L. Ibanez, E. Oberfield Sh, S.F. Witchel, R.J. Auchus, R.J. Chang, E. Codner et al. An international consortium apdate: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome in adolescence. Horm. Res. Paediatr. 8896, 371–395 (2017). CrossRef
18.
Zurück zum Zitat N.E. Baskind, A.H. Balen, Hypothalamic–pituitary, ovarian and adrenal contributions to polycystic ovary syndrome. Best. Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol. 37, 80–97 (2016) PubMedCrossRef N.E. Baskind, A.H. Balen, Hypothalamic–pituitary, ovarian and adrenal contributions to polycystic ovary syndrome. Best. Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol. 37, 80–97 (2016) PubMedCrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat N.M. Orsi, N.E. Baskind, M. Cummings, Anatomy, development, histology, and normal function of the ovary. in Pathology of the Ovary, Fallopian Tube and Peritoneum, (Springer, London, 2014) pp. 1–32. N.M. Orsi, N.E. Baskind, M. Cummings, Anatomy, development, histology, and normal function of the ovary. in Pathology of the Ovary, Fallopian Tube and Peritoneum, (Springer, London, 2014) pp. 1–32.
20.
Zurück zum Zitat A.M. Moore, R.E. Campbell, The neuroendocrine genesis of polycystic ovary syndrome: a role for arcuate nucleus GABA neurons. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 160, 106–117 (2016) PubMedCrossRef A.M. Moore, R.E. Campbell, The neuroendocrine genesis of polycystic ovary syndrome: a role for arcuate nucleus GABA neurons. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 160, 106–117 (2016) PubMedCrossRef
21.
Zurück zum Zitat J.E. Hall, A.E. Taylor, F.J. Hayes, W.F. Crowley, Insights into hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J. Endocrinol. Investig. 21(9), 602–611 (1998). CrossRef J.E. Hall, A.E. Taylor, F.J. Hayes, W.F. Crowley, Insights into hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J. Endocrinol. Investig. 21(9), 602–611 (1998). CrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat D. Barlampa, M.S. Bompoula, A. Bargiota, S. Kalantaridou, G. Mastorakos, G. Valsamakis, Hypothalamic inflammation as a potential pathophysiologic basis for the heterogeneity of clinical, hormonal, and metabolic presentation in PCOS. Nutrients 13(2), 520 (2021) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef D. Barlampa, M.S. Bompoula, A. Bargiota, S. Kalantaridou, G. Mastorakos, G. Valsamakis, Hypothalamic inflammation as a potential pathophysiologic basis for the heterogeneity of clinical, hormonal, and metabolic presentation in PCOS. Nutrients 13(2), 520 (2021) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
23.
Zurück zum Zitat K.S. Olaniyi, A.A. Oniyide, O.A. Adeyanju, L.S. Ojulari, A.O. Omoaghe, O.E. Olaiya, Low dose spironolactone-mediated androgen-adiponectin modulation alleviates endocrine-metabolic disturbances in letrozole-induced PCOS. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 411, 115381 (2021a) PubMedCrossRef K.S. Olaniyi, A.A. Oniyide, O.A. Adeyanju, L.S. Ojulari, A.O. Omoaghe, O.E. Olaiya, Low dose spironolactone-mediated androgen-adiponectin modulation alleviates endocrine-metabolic disturbances in letrozole-induced PCOS. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 411, 115381 (2021a) PubMedCrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat A.P. Delitala, G. Capobianco, G. Delitala, P.L. Cherchi, S. Dessole, Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 296(3), 405–419 (2017) PubMedCrossRef A.P. Delitala, G. Capobianco, G. Delitala, P.L. Cherchi, S. Dessole, Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 296(3), 405–419 (2017) PubMedCrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat P.M. Spritzer, S.B. Lecke, F. Satler, D.M. Morsch, Adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokines, and low-grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Reproduction 149(5), R219–R227 (2015) PubMedCrossRef P.M. Spritzer, S.B. Lecke, F. Satler, D.M. Morsch, Adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokines, and low-grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Reproduction 149(5), R219–R227 (2015) PubMedCrossRef
26.
Zurück zum Zitat R. Pasquali, Lifestyle Interventions and Natural and Assisted Reproduction in Patients with PCOS. InInfertility in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 2018 (pp. 169–180). Springer, Cham R. Pasquali, Lifestyle Interventions and Natural and Assisted Reproduction in Patients with PCOS. InInfertility in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 2018 (pp. 169–180). Springer, Cham
27.
Zurück zum Zitat B. Zeng, Z. Lai, L. Sun, Z. Zhang, J. Yang, Z. Li, J. Lin, Z. Zhang, Structural and functional profiles of the gut microbial community in polycystic ovary syndrome with insulin resistance (IR-PCOS): a pilot study. Res. Microbiol. 170(1), 43–52 (2019) PubMedCrossRef B. Zeng, Z. Lai, L. Sun, Z. Zhang, J. Yang, Z. Li, J. Lin, Z. Zhang, Structural and functional profiles of the gut microbial community in polycystic ovary syndrome with insulin resistance (IR-PCOS): a pilot study. Res. Microbiol. 170(1), 43–52 (2019) PubMedCrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat L.G. Silveira, C. Tusset, A.C. Latronico, Impact of mutations in kisspeptin and neurokinin B signaling pathways on human reproduction. Brain Res. 1364, 72–80 (2010) PubMedCrossRef L.G. Silveira, C. Tusset, A.C. Latronico, Impact of mutations in kisspeptin and neurokinin B signaling pathways on human reproduction. Brain Res. 1364, 72–80 (2010) PubMedCrossRef
29.
Zurück zum Zitat B.S. Araújo, M.C. Baracat, R. dos Santos Simões, C. de Oliveira Nuñes, G.A. Maciel, R.A. Lobo, J.M. Soares-Jr, E.C. Baracat, Kisspeptin Influence on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome—A Mini Review. Reprod. Sci. 27(2), 455–460 (2020) PubMedCrossRef B.S. Araújo, M.C. Baracat, R. dos Santos Simões, C. de Oliveira Nuñes, G.A. Maciel, R.A. Lobo, J.M. Soares-Jr, E.C. Baracat, Kisspeptin Influence on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome—A Mini Review. Reprod. Sci. 27(2), 455–460 (2020) PubMedCrossRef
30.
Zurück zum Zitat R.E. Brown, D.A. Wilkinson, S.A. Imran, A. Caraty, M. Wilkinson, Hypothalamic kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin immunoreactivity are reduced in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Brain Res. 1467, 1–9 (2012). PubMedCrossRef R.E. Brown, D.A. Wilkinson, S.A. Imran, A. Caraty, M. Wilkinson, Hypothalamic kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin immunoreactivity are reduced in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Brain Res. 1467, 1–9 (2012). PubMedCrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat S. Osuka, A. Iwase, T. Nakahara, M. Kondo, A. Saito, T. Nakamura, S. Takikawa, M. Goto, T. Kotani, F. Kikkawa, Kisspeptin in the hypothalamus of 2 rat models of polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinology 158(2), 367–377 (2017). PubMed S. Osuka, A. Iwase, T. Nakahara, M. Kondo, A. Saito, T. Nakamura, S. Takikawa, M. Goto, T. Kotani, F. Kikkawa, Kisspeptin in the hypothalamus of 2 rat models of polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinology 158(2), 367–377 (2017). PubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat J.C. Venancio, L.O. Margatho, R. Rorato, R.R. Rosales, L.K. Debarba, R. Coletti, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, C.F. Elias, L.L. Elias, Short-term high-fat diet increases leptin activation of CART neurons and advances puberty in female mice. Endocrinology 158(11), 3929–3942 (2017) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef J.C. Venancio, L.O. Margatho, R. Rorato, R.R. Rosales, L.K. Debarba, R. Coletti, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, C.F. Elias, L.L. Elias, Short-term high-fat diet increases leptin activation of CART neurons and advances puberty in female mice. Endocrinology 158(11), 3929–3942 (2017) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
33.
Zurück zum Zitat C.Y. Lee, S. Li, X.F. Li, D.A. Stalker, C. Cooke, B. Shao, H. Kelestimur, B.A. Henry, G. Conductier, K.T. O’Byrne, I.J. Clarke, Lipopolysaccharide reduces gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression: Role of RFamide-related peptide-3 and kisspeptin. Reprod., Fertil. Dev. 31(6), 1134–1143 (2019) CrossRef C.Y. Lee, S. Li, X.F. Li, D.A. Stalker, C. Cooke, B. Shao, H. Kelestimur, B.A. Henry, G. Conductier, K.T. O’Byrne, I.J. Clarke, Lipopolysaccharide reduces gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression: Role of RFamide-related peptide-3 and kisspeptin. Reprod., Fertil. Dev. 31(6), 1134–1143 (2019) CrossRef
34.
Zurück zum Zitat M.A. González Hernández, E.E. Canfora, J.W. Jocken, E.E. Blaak, The short-chain fatty acid acetate in body weight control and insulin sensitivity. Nutrients 11(8), 1943 (2019) PubMedCentralCrossRef M.A. González Hernández, E.E. Canfora, J.W. Jocken, E.E. Blaak, The short-chain fatty acid acetate in body weight control and insulin sensitivity. Nutrients 11(8), 1943 (2019) PubMedCentralCrossRef
35.
Zurück zum Zitat K.S. Olaniyi, O.A. Amusa, Sodium acetate-mediated inhibition of histone deacetylase alleviates hepatic lipid dysregulation and its accompanied injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Biomedicine Pharmacother. 128, 110226 (2020) CrossRef K.S. Olaniyi, O.A. Amusa, Sodium acetate-mediated inhibition of histone deacetylase alleviates hepatic lipid dysregulation and its accompanied injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Biomedicine Pharmacother. 128, 110226 (2020) CrossRef
36.
Zurück zum Zitat V. Karoor, D. Strassheim, T. Sullivan, A. Verin, N.S. Umapathy, E.C. Dempsey, D.N. Frank, K.R. Stenmark, E. Gerasimovskaya, The short-chain fatty acid butyrate attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22(18), 9916 (2021) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef V. Karoor, D. Strassheim, T. Sullivan, A. Verin, N.S. Umapathy, E.C. Dempsey, D.N. Frank, K.R. Stenmark, E. Gerasimovskaya, The short-chain fatty acid butyrate attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22(18), 9916 (2021) PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
37.
Zurück zum Zitat O.A. Adeyanju, T.O. Falodun, O.S. Michael, O.A. Soetan, A.L. Oyewole, R.D. Agbana, Spironolactone reversed hepato-ovarian triglyceride accumulation caused by letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome: tissue uric acid—a familiar foe. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 393(6), 1055–1066 (2020). CrossRef O.A. Adeyanju, T.O. Falodun, O.S. Michael, O.A. Soetan, A.L. Oyewole, R.D. Agbana, Spironolactone reversed hepato-ovarian triglyceride accumulation caused by letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome: tissue uric acid—a familiar foe. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 393(6), 1055–1066 (2020). CrossRef
38.
Zurück zum Zitat H. Kafali, M. Iriadam, I. Ozardali, N. Demir, Letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries in the rat: a new model for cystic ovarian disease. Arch. Med. Res. 35, 103–108 (2004) PubMedCrossRef H. Kafali, M. Iriadam, I. Ozardali, N. Demir, Letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries in the rat: a new model for cystic ovarian disease. Arch. Med. Res. 35, 103–108 (2004) PubMedCrossRef
39.
Zurück zum Zitat K.S. Olaniyi, M.N. Owolabi, C.L. Atuma, T.B. Agunbiade, B.Y. Alabi, Acetate rescues defective brain-adipose metabolic network in obese Wistar rats by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Sci. Rep. 11(1), 1–5 (2021b) CrossRef K.S. Olaniyi, M.N. Owolabi, C.L. Atuma, T.B. Agunbiade, B.Y. Alabi, Acetate rescues defective brain-adipose metabolic network in obese Wistar rats by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Sci. Rep. 11(1), 1–5 (2021b) CrossRef
40.
Zurück zum Zitat A.W. Hsing, Y.T. Gao, S. Chua Jr, J. Deng, F.Z. Stanczyk, Insulin resistance and prostate cancer risk. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 95(1), 67–71 (2003) PubMedCrossRef A.W. Hsing, Y.T. Gao, S. Chua Jr, J. Deng, F.Z. Stanczyk, Insulin resistance and prostate cancer risk. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 95(1), 67–71 (2003) PubMedCrossRef
41.
Zurück zum Zitat K.S. Olaniyi, L.A. Olatunji, Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 by l-glutamine protects pregnant rats against fructose-induced obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation. Biomed. Pharmacother. 110, 59–67 (2019) PubMedCrossRef K.S. Olaniyi, L.A. Olatunji, Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 by l-glutamine protects pregnant rats against fructose-induced obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation. Biomed. Pharmacother. 110, 59–67 (2019) PubMedCrossRef
42.
Zurück zum Zitat S. Malamed, J.A. Gibney, S.R. Ojeda, Ovarian innervation develops before initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat. Cell Tissue Res. 270(1), 87–93 (1992) PubMedCrossRef S. Malamed, J.A. Gibney, S.R. Ojeda, Ovarian innervation develops before initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat. Cell Tissue Res. 270(1), 87–93 (1992) PubMedCrossRef
43.
Zurück zum Zitat K.S. Olaniyi, O.A. Amusa, I.O. Ajadi, B.Y. Alabi, T.B. Agunbiade, M.B. Ajadi, Repression of HDAC5 by acetate restores hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Reprod. Toxicol. 106, 69–81 (2021) PubMedCrossRef K.S. Olaniyi, O.A. Amusa, I.O. Ajadi, B.Y. Alabi, T.B. Agunbiade, M.B. Ajadi, Repression of HDAC5 by acetate restores hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Reprod. Toxicol. 106, 69–81 (2021) PubMedCrossRef
44.
Zurück zum Zitat K.A. Posey, D.J. Clegg, R.L. Printz, J. Byun, G.J. Morton, A. Vivekanandan-Giri, S. Pennathur, D.G. Baskin, J.W. Heinecke, S.C. Woods, M.W. Schwartz, Hypothalamic proinflammatory lipid accumulation, inflammation, and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet. Am. J. Physiol.-Endocrinol. Metab. 296(5), E1003–E1012 (2009) PubMedCrossRef K.A. Posey, D.J. Clegg, R.L. Printz, J. Byun, G.J. Morton, A. Vivekanandan-Giri, S. Pennathur, D.G. Baskin, J.W. Heinecke, S.C. Woods, M.W. Schwartz, Hypothalamic proinflammatory lipid accumulation, inflammation, and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet. Am. J. Physiol.-Endocrinol. Metab. 296(5), E1003–E1012 (2009) PubMedCrossRef
49.
Zurück zum Zitat A.T. Vieira, I. Galvão, L.M. Macia, E.M. Sernaglia, M.A. Vinolo, C.C. Garcia, L.P. Tavares, F.A. Amaral, L.P. Sousa, F.S. Martins, C.R. Mackay, Dietary fiber and the short‐chain fatty acid acetate promote resolution of neutrophilic inflammation in a model of gout in mice. J. Leukoc. Biol. 101(1), 275–84. (2017) PubMedCrossRef A.T. Vieira, I. Galvão, L.M. Macia, E.M. Sernaglia, M.A. Vinolo, C.C. Garcia, L.P. Tavares, F.A. Amaral, L.P. Sousa, F.S. Martins, C.R. Mackay, Dietary fiber and the short‐chain fatty acid acetate promote resolution of neutrophilic inflammation in a model of gout in mice. J. Leukoc. Biol. 101(1), 275–84. (2017) PubMedCrossRef
50.
Metadaten
Titel
Acetate restores hypothalamic-adipose kisspeptin status in a rat model of PCOS by suppression of NLRP3 immunoreactivity
verfasst von
Kehinde S. Olaniyi
Stephanie E. Areloegbe
Mosunmola B. Oyeleke
Publikationsdatum
16.09.2022
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Endocrine / Ausgabe 3/2022
Print ISSN: 1355-008X
Elektronische ISSN: 1559-0100
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-022-03191-9

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 3/2022

Endocrine 3/2022 Zur Ausgabe

Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Innere Medizin und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.