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01.12.2018 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2018

Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura associated with severe ADAMTS13 deficiency in a 3-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Hamidah Alias, Woon Lee Yong, Farah Azima Abdul Muttlib, Ho Wai Koo, C-Khai Loh, Sie Chong Doris Lau, Hafiza Alauddin, Raja Zahratul Azma

Abstract

Background

Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura is very rarely encountered in children. It is often misdiagnosed initially when the condition is not inherited.

Case presentation

We describe a 3-year-old Malay boy who presented with simple febrile seizure and had no neurological deficit, however, he was found to have microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase. An ADAMTS13 assay results showed zero activities (0%), and markedly high level of ADAMTS13 inhibitor (93.15 U/mL) confirming the diagnosis of secondary thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura. He received fresh frozen plasma infusions for 3 days and subsequently his platelet levels normalized. Serial ADAMTS13 assay results showed improvement. He was also given a short course of prednisolone after which the ADAMTS13 activity normalized (> 114%) at the end of prednisolone course.

Conclusions

At presentation, acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura in a very young child is commonly misdiagnosed as other conditions like idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Evans syndrome, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, or malignancy. ADAMTS13 assay should be performed early when thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura is suspected as this condition is associated with dire consequences.

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