The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-9255-9-19) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors have no competing interest.
RL carried out all experiments and participated in the data analysis and writing of the manuscript. HH and MGP were responsible for the plant extract preparations. TSF and DG, conceived of the study, participated in the design and coordination of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Esenbeckia leiocarpa, a wide spread native Brazilian tree, was reported recently to possess anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, but the mechanisms involved are still not fully understood and its role in neutrophils is poorly documented. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and an alkaloid-enriched (Alk) fraction obtained from Esenbeckia leiocarpa bark on human neutrophils by investigating the effect of each fraction alone or in a mixture with classical neutrophil agonists. CHE inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but increased the extracellular superoxide (O2-) production, while Alk increased the former and also slightly increased O2- production. We found that CHE and Alk also induced phagocytosis accompanied by Syk activation, adhesion and degranulation. However, neither CHE nor Alk potentiated the effect of classical neutrophil agonists, namely the cytokines GM-CSF for phagocytosis and TNF-α for adhesion or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) for degranulation. In addition, based on catalase treatment, CHE and Alk induced neutrophil apoptosis by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent mechanism. Since the elimination of apoptotic neutrophils by professional phagocytes is important for the resolution of inflammation, the ability of CHE and Alk to induce neutrophil apoptosis has to be considered as one possible mechanism associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions previously reported in vivo.
Authors’ original file for figure 112950_2011_234_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 212950_2011_234_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 312950_2011_234_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 412950_2011_234_MOESM4_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 512950_2011_234_MOESM5_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 612950_2011_234_MOESM6_ESM.pdf
Dolabela MF, Oliveira SG, Nascimento JM, Peres JM, Wagner H, Povoa MM, de Oliveira AB: In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extract and constituents from Esenbeckia febrifuga, a plant traditionally used to treat malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Phytomedicine. 2008, 15: 367-372. 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.02.001. CrossRefPubMed
Carvalho LH, Brandao MG, Santos-Filho D, Lopes JL, Krettli AU: Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from Brazilian plants studied in vivo in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum in culture. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1991, 24: 1113-1123. PubMed
Liz R, Pereira DF, Horst H, Dalmarco EM, Dalmarco JB, Simionatto EL, Pizzolatti MG, Girard D, Frode TS: Protected effect of Esenbeckia leiocarpa upon the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in a murine air pouch model. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011, 1: 1-
Lee YZ, Huang CW, Yang CW, Hsu HY, Kang IJ, Chao YS, Chen IS, Chang HY, Lee SJ: Isolation and Biological Activities of Phenanthroindolizidine and Septicine Alkaloids from the Formosan Tylophora ovata. Planta Med. 2011, 4: 4-
Ko HC, Wang YH, Liou KT, Chen CM, Chen CH, Wang WY, Chang S, Hou YC, Chen KT, Chen CF, Shen YC: Anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of the ethanol extract of Evodia rutaecarpa and its bioactive components on neutrophils and microglial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007, 555: 211-217. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.10.002. CrossRefPubMed
Wang XH, Jiang SM, Sun QW: Effects of berberine on human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Exp Biol Med. 2011, 236: 859-866. 10.1258/ebm.2011.010366. CrossRef
Girard D, Paquet ME, Paquin R, Beaulieu AD: Differential effects of interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 on human neutrophils: modulation of phagocytosis, cytoskeleton rearrangement, gene expression, and apoptosis by IL-15. Blood. 1996, 88: 3176-3184. PubMed
Binet F, Cavalli H, Moisan E, Girard D: Arsenic trioxide (AT) is a novel human neutrophil pro-apoptotic agent: effects of catalase on AT-induced apoptosis, degradation of cytoskeletal proteins and de novo protein synthesis. Br J Haematol. 2006, 132: 349-358. 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05866.x. CrossRefPubMed
Hampton MB, Kettle AJ, Winterbourn CC: Inside the neutrophil phagosome: oxidants, myeloperoxidase, and bacterial killing. Blood. 1998, 92: 3007-3017. PubMed
- Activation of human neutrophils by Esenbeckia leiocarpa: comparison between the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and an alkaloid (Alk) fraction
Rafael de Liz
Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti
Tânia Silvia Fröde
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II