The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12199-017-0646-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Many epidemiological studies on the health effects of air pollutants have been carried out in regions with major sources such as factories and automobiles. However, the health effects of air pollutants in regions without major sources remain unclear. This study investigated the acute effects of ambient air pollution on pulmonary function among healthy students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants.
A panel study was conducted of 43 healthy subjects who attended a school in an isolated island in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We measured the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) every morning for about 1 month in May 2014. Ambient concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM10-2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured. The associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and pulmonary function were analyzed using mixed-effects models.
A decrease in FEV1 was significantly associated with BC concentrations (−27.28 mL [95%confidence interval (CI):−54.10,−0.46] for an interquartile range (IQR) increase of 0.23 μg/m3). The decrease in PEF was significantly associated with indoor O3 concentrations (−8.03 L/min [95% CI:−13.02,−3.03] for an IQR increase of 11 ppb). Among subjects with a history of allergy, an increase in PM2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with low FEV1. In subjects with a history of asthma, an inverse association between the indoor O3 concentration and pulmonary function was observed.
Our results demonstrate that increases in BC and O3 concentrations have acute effects on the pulmonary function among students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants.
Bell ML. Assessment of the health impacts of particulate matter characteristics. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2012;161:5–38.
Ferris BG. Epidemiology Standardization Project (American Thoracic Society). Am Rev Respir Dis. 1978;118:1–120. PubMed
Allen AG, Nemitz E, Shi JP, Harrison RM, Greenwood JC. Size distributions of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols in the United Kingdom. Atmos Environ. 2001;35:4581–91. CrossRef
Kanaya Y, Taketani F, Irie H, Komazaki Y, Takashima H, Uno I. PM2.5 mass concentrations observed at Fukue Island, Kyushu, Japan: Exceeding the atmospheric environment standard. J Jpn Soc Atmos Environ. 2010;45(6):289–92.
Suzuki R, Yoshino A, Kaneyasu N, Takami A, Hayashi M, Hara K, et al. Characteristics and source apportionment of trace metals in the aerosols at Fukue Island and Fukuoka City. J Jpn Soc Atmos Environ. 2014;49:15–25 [in Japanese].
Huang J, Deng F, Wu S, Zhao Y, Shima M, Guo B, et al. Acute effects on pulmonary function in young healthy adults exposed to traffic-related air pollution in semi-closed transport hub in Beijing. Environ Health Prev Med. 2016; doi: 10.1007/s12199-016-0531-5.
World Health Organization. Health effects of black carbon. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2012;23-33.
Society CotEaOHAotAT. Health effects of outdoor air pollution. Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153:3–50. CrossRef
World Health Organization. Air quality guidelines - global update 2005. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2006.
Carbone U, Montuori P, Novi C, Triassi M. Respiratory function in power plant workers exposed to nitrogen dioxide. Occup Med (Lond). 2014; doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqu129.
Yoda Y, Takagi H, Wakamatu J, Otani N, Shima M. Short-term effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function in adolescent with a history of asthma or allergies. Jap J Allergology [Arerugi]. 2015;64:128–35 [in Japanese].
- Acute effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function among students: a panel study in an isolated island
- BioMed Central