Skip to main content
main-content

01.12.2014 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2014 Open Access

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 1/2014

Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (electronic cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettes

Zeitschrift:
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders > Ausgabe 1/2014
Autoren:
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Dimitris Tsiapras, Stamatis Kyrzopoulos, Maria Savvopoulou, Vassilis Voudris
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1471-2261-14-78) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

After this study was completed, the authors have performed studies using funds provided to the institution by e-cigarette companies.

Authors’ contributions

KF was responsible for study conception and design. KF, DT and MS were responsible for data collection. SK was responsible for off-line measurements of echocardiographic parameters. KF, DT and VV were responsible for statistical analysis and interpretation. KF, DT and VV drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Electronic cigarettes have been developed and marketed in recent years as smoking substitutes. However, no studies have evaluated their effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on left ventricular (LV) function, compared to the well-documented acute adverse effects of smoking.

Methods

Echocardiographic examinations were performed in 36 healthy heavy smokers (SM, age 36 ± 5 years) before and after smoking 1 cigarette and in 40 electronic cigarette users (ECIG, age 35 ± 5 years) before and after using the device with “medium-strength” nicotine concentration (11 mg/ml) for 7 minutes. Mitral flow diastolic velocities (E, A), their ratio (E/A), deceleration time (DT), isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) and corrected-to-heart rate IVRT (IVRTc) were measured. Mitral annulus systolic (Sm), and diastolic (Em, Am) velocities were estimated. Myocardial performance index was calculated from Doppler flow (MPI) and tissue Doppler (MPIt). Longitudinal deformation measurements of global strain (GS), systolic (SRs) and diastolic (SRe, SRa) strain rate were also performed.

Results

Baseline measurements were similar in both groups. In SM, IVRT and IVRTc were prolonged, Em and SRe were decreased, and both MPI and MPIt were elevated after smoking. In ECIG, no differences were observed after device use. Comparing after-use measurements, ECIG had higher Em (P = 0.032) and SRe (P = 0.022), and lower IVRTc (P = 0.011), MPI (P = 0.001) and MPIt (P = 0.019). The observed differences were significant even after adjusting for changes in heart rate and blood pressure.

Conclusions

Although acute smoking causes a delay in myocardial relaxation, electronic cigarette use has no immediate effects. Electronic cigarettes’ role in tobacco harm reduction should be studied intensively in order to determine whether switching to electronic cigarette use may have long-term beneficial effects on smokers’ health.

Trial registration

Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16974547
Zusatzmaterial
Literatur
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2014

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 1/2014 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Kardiologie

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Kardiologie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.

Bildnachweise