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01.12.2019 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2019

Acute human bocavirus 1 infection in child with life-threatening bilateral bronchiolitis and right-sided pneumonia: a case report

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2019
Autoren:
Inga Ziemele, Man Xu, Anda Vilmane, Santa Rasa-Dzelzkaleja, Lea Hedman, Klaus Hedman, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Zaiga Nora-Krukle, Modra Murovska, Dace Gardovska
Wichtige Hinweise

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Abstract

Background

Human bocavirus 1 is a commonly detected human parvovirus. Many studies have shown human bocavirus 1 as a pathogen in association with acute respiratory tract infections in children. However, because human bocavirus 1 persists in the upper airways for extensive time periods after acute infection, the definition and diagnostics of acute human bocavirus 1 infection is challenging. Until now, detection of human bocavirus 1 exclusively, high viral load in respiratory samples, and viremia have been associated with a clinical picture of acute respiratory illness. There are no studies showing detection of human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a diagnostic marker for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

Case presentation

We report the case of a 17-month-old Latvian boy who presented in intensive care unit with acute bilateral bronchiolitis, with a history of rhinorrhea and cough for 6 days and fever for the last 2 days prior to admission, followed by severe respiratory distress and tracheal intubation. Human bocavirus 1 was the only respiratory virus detected by a qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction panel. For the diagnosis of acute human bocavirus 1 infection, both molecular and serological approaches were used. Human bocavirus 1 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected simultaneously in nasopharyngeal aspirate, stool, and blood, as well as in the corresponding cell-free blood plasma by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, revealing high DNA-copy numbers in nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool. Despite a low-load viremia, human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid was found in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For detection of human bocavirus 1-specific antibodies, non-competitive immunoglobulin M and competitive immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassays were used. The plasma was positive for both human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies.

Conclusions

The presence of human bocavirus 1 genomic DNA in blood plasma and human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in peripheral blood mononuclear cells together with human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M are markers of acute human bocavirus 1 infection that may cause life-threatening acute bronchiolitis.

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