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01.12.2017 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2017

Acute myocardial infarction associated with thrombotic microangiopathy following a hump-nosed viper bite: a case report

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Nipun Lakshitha de Silva, Lalindra Gooneratne, Eranga Wijewickrama

Abstract

Background

Hump-nosed viper bite is the commonest cause of venomous snakebite in Sri Lanka. Despite initially being considered a moderately venomous snake more recent reports have revealed that it could cause significant systemic envenoming leading to coagulopathy and acute kidney injury. However, myocardial infarction was not reported except for a single case, which occurred immediately after the snakebite.

Case presentation

A 50-year-old previously healthy Sri Lankan woman had a hump-nosed viper bite with no evidence of systemic envenoming during initial hospital stay. Five days later she presented with bite site cellulitis with hemorrhagic blisters, acute kidney injury, and evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia with normal coagulation studies. She was managed with supportive care that included intravenously administered antibiotics, blood transfusions, and hemodialysis; both her microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia improved without any specific intervention. On day 10 she developed: a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated with acute left ventricular failure evidenced by acute shortness of breath with desaturation despite adequate ultrafiltration; new onset lateral lead T inversions in electrocardiogram; raised troponin I titer; and hypokinetic segments on echocardiogram. She was managed with low molecular weight heparin and antiplatelet drugs, which were later discontinued due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Her hospital stay was further complicated by hospital-acquired pneumonia and deep vein thrombosis involving her ileofemoral vein. She died on day 33 from the snakebite.

Conclusions

Myocardial infarction after snakebites is rarely reported. This is the first case report of a patient developing a myocardial infarction during the recovery phase of thrombotic microangiopathy following a hump-nosed viper bite. The possibility of thrombotic risk related to thrombotic microangiopathy following hump-nosed viper bite is an area that is poorly studied; it needs further attention.

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