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19.05.2016 | Original Article | Ausgabe 6/2016 Open Access

Netherlands Heart Journal 6/2016

Adaptation and validation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for the Netherlands

Netherlands Heart Journal > Ausgabe 6/2016
M. Wapenaar, J. Twiss, M. Wagenaar, P. Seijkens, L. van den Toorn, J. Stepanous, A. Heaney, A. van den Bosch, K. A. Boomars
Wichtige Hinweise
An erratum to this article is available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12471-018-1158-5.
The original version of this article has been revised, the ESM has been removed due to copyright issues.
A correction to this article is available online at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12471-018-1158-5.



The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first disease-specific instrument for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) to assess patient-perceived symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life. To be able to use this questionnaire in the Netherlands, the aim of the study was to translate and validate this instrument for the Dutch-speaking population.


First the CAMPHOR was translated into Dutch (by means of a bilingual and a lay panel) and field-tested by means of cognitive debriefing interviews with ten PAH patients. For psychometric evaluation, 80 patients with PAH or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) were asked to complete the CAMPHOR twice over a two-week period. To test for construct validity, participants also completed the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).


The Dutch version of the CAMPHOR showed high internal consistency for all scales (Cronbach’s alpha 0.89–0.91) and excellent reproducibility over two weeks (reliability coefficients 0.87–0.91). Concurrent validity showed that the CAMPHOR scales correlated as expected with the NHP scales. The CAMPHOR was able to distinguish between patient groups based on self-reported general health status, disease severity and NYHA classification demonstrating evidence of known group validity. The CAMPHOR activity limitations scale correlated moderately with the distance walked during the 6‑minute walk test (r = −0.47, p < 0.01) and the symptoms scale with the Borg dyspnoea score (r = 0.51, p < 0.01).


The Dutch version of the CAMPHOR is a reliable and valid measure of quality of life and health status in patients with PAH and CTEPH is recommended for use in routine care and in clinical research.
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