Previous research has failed to examine more than one self-care behaviour in type 2 diabetes patients in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to investigate adult Ghanaian type 2 diabetes patients’ adherence to four self-care activities: diet (general and specific), exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and foot care.
Consenting type 2 diabetes patients attending diabetes outpatient clinic appointments at three hospitals in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana completed a cross-sectional survey comprising the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure, and questions about demographic characteristics and diabetes history. Height and weight were also measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors associated with adherence to each of the four self-care behaviours.
In the last 7 days, participants exercised for a mean (SD) of 4.78 (2.09) days and followed diet, foot care and SMBG for a mean (SD) of 4.40 (1.52), 2.86 (2.16) and 2.15 (0.65) days, respectively. More education was associated with a higher frequency of reported participation in exercise (r = 0.168, p = 0.022), following a healthy diet (r = 0.223, p = 0.002) and foot care (r = 0.153, p = 0.037) in the last 7 days. Males reported performing SMBG (r = 0.198, p = 0.007) more frequently than their female counterparts.
Adherence to diet, SMBG and checking of feet were relatively low. People with low education and women may need additional support to improve adherence to self-care behaviours in this type 2 diabetes population.
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- Adherence to and factors associated with self-care behaviours in type 2 diabetes patients in Ghana
Zakaria Osman Abanga
Natalie A. Johnson
- BioMed Central
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