The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2925-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent a major problem in HIV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) with circulating levels of two adipokines (Lipocalin-2 and Fatty Acid Binding Protein-4, FABP-4), known to be associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in the general population.
We enrolled 40 non-obese HIV-infected patients and 10 healthy controls of similar age and Body Mass Index (BMI). Body composition, metabolic syndrome, lipid profile, 10-years CVD risk score, and adipokines levels were compared between groups. ART-regimen status (naïve, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors – NNRTIs – and protease inhibitors – PIs) association with adipokines levels was tested with linear regression models.
HIV patients showed a worse metabolic profile than controls. Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in HIV-infected subjects (+53%; p = 0.007), with a significant trend (p = 0.003) for higher levels among subjects taking NNRTIs. Association of lipocalin-2 with fat-mass and BMI was modulated by ART regimens, being positive among subjects treated with NNRTIs and negative among those treated with PIs (“ART-regimens-by-BMI” interaction p = 0.0009). FABP-4 levels were correlated with age, fat mass, BMI, lipid profile and CVD risk (all R ≥ 0.32, p < 0.05), but not influenced by HIV-status (+20%; p = 0.12) or ART-regimen (p = 0.4).
Our data confirm that HIV-infection is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, as measured by Lipocalin-2 levels, and ART does not attenuate this association. While FABP-4 is a marker of worse metabolic and CVD profile independently of HIV status or ART regimen, lipocalin-2 could represent a useful marker for HIV- and ART-related adipose tissue dysfunction.
Additional file 1: Table S1. General characteristics of the population according to treatment status. (DOCX 15 kb)12879_2017_2925_MOESM1_ESM.docx
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- Adipokines levels in HIV infected patients: lipocalin-2 and fatty acid binding protein-4 as possible markers of HIV and antiretroviral therapy-related adipose tissue inflammation
Mario Luca Morieri
Juana Maria Sanz
Edoardo Dalla Nora
- BioMed Central
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