There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations. Caffeinated chewing gum improved endurance cycling performance, and there is limited evidence that repeated sprint cycling and power production may also be improved. Mouth rinsing with caffeine may stimulate nerves with direct links to the brain, in addition to caffeine absorption in the mouth. However, caffeine mouth rinsing has not been shown to have significant effects on cognitive performance. Delivering caffeine with mouth rinsing improved short-duration, high-intensity, repeated sprinting in normal and depleted glycogen states, while the majority of the literature indicates no ergogenic effect on aerobic exercise performance, and resistance exercise has not been adequately studied. Studies with caffeinated energy drinks have generally not examined the individual effects of caffeine on performance, making conclusions about this form of caffeine delivery impossible. Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. Overall, more research is needed examining alternate forms of caffeine delivery including direct measures of brain activation and entry of caffeine into the blood, as well as more studies examining trained athletes and female subjects.
Spriet LL. Caffeine. In: Maughan RJ, editor. The encyclopaedia of sports medicine: an IOC medical commission publication. Sports Nutrition. 19th ed. Oxford: Wiley; 2013. p. 313–23. CrossRef
Burke L, Desbrow B, Spriet LL. Caffeine for sports performance. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2013.
Gant N, Ali A, Foskett A. The influence of caffeine and carbohydrate coingestion on simulated soccer performance. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20:191–7. CrossRef
Guttierres APM, Alfenas RC, Lima JRP, et al. Metabolic effects of a caffeinated sports drink consumed during a soccer match. Motriz Rio Claro. 2013;19:688–95.
Shargel L, Yu ABC. Applied biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics. 4th ed. Stamford: Appleton and Lange; 1999.
Oberlin-Brown KT, Siegel R, Kilding AE, et al. Oral presence of carbohydrate and caffeine in chewing gum: independent and combined effects on endurance cycling performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perfom. 2016;11:164–71. CrossRef
Bellar D, Kamimori G, Judge L. Effects of low-dose caffeine supplementation on early morning performance in the standing shot put throw. Eur J Sports Sci. 2012;12:57–61. CrossRef
Lee J, Kim HT, Solares GJ, et al. Caffeinated nitric oxide-releasing lozenge improves cycling time trial performance. Int J Sports Med. 2015;36:107–12. PubMed
Sinclair J, Bottoms L. The effects of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing on arm crank time-trial performance. J Sports Res. 2014;1:34–44.
Lesniak AY, Davis SE, Moir GL, et al. The effects of carbohydrate, caffeine and combined rinses on cycling performance. J Sport Human Perform. 2016;4:1–10.
Spriet LL, Whitfield J. Taurine and skeletal muscle function. Curr Opin Clin Metab Care. 2015;18:96–101. CrossRef
Rutherford JA, Spriet LL, Stellingwerff T. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on endurance performance and metabolism in trained cyclists. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20:322–9. CrossRef
Stroop JR. Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J Exp Psychol. 1935;18:643–62. CrossRef
Aeroshot, http://www.blessthisstuff.com/stuff/living/misc-living/aeroshot-pure-energy/. Accessed 26 Nov 2017.
Instavit, https://instavit.com/product/instant-energy/. Accessed 26 Nov 2017.
Primer, http://www.itsgotime.com/. Accessed 26 Nov 2017.
Revvies, http://www.revviesenergy.com/our-products/. Accessed 26 Nov 2017.
Sprayable Energy, https://sprayable.wpengine.com/media/. Accessed 26 Nov 2017.
- Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms
Kate A. Wickham
Lawrence L. Spriet
- Springer International Publishing
Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Mail Icon II