Skip to main content

29.10.2019 | Original Article

Age-based normal sagittal alignment in Chinese asymptomatic adults: establishment of the relationships between pelvic incidence and other parameters

European Spine Journal
Siyu Zhou, Fei Xu, Wei Wang, Da Zou, Zhuoran Sun, Weishi Li
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00586-019-06178-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Siyu Zhou and Fei Xu contributed equally to this work.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.



To investigate the age-based normal values of sagittal parameters and establish the relationships between them in Chinese population.


Two hundred eighteen asymptomatic adult volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. The whole spine standing radiograph was taken from them, and the parameters including sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T1 pelvic angle (TPA), global tilt (GT), spino-sacral angle, lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), T1 slope (T1S), cervical lordosis (CL), C2–C7SVA, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slop (SS) and pelvic incidence (PI) were measured. The gender differences in sagittal alignment were compared. Pearson correlation was calculated, and a linear regression analysis was used to establish the relation between PI and other parameters.


The average values of PI, LL, TPA and GT were 46.2°, 48.2°, 7.8° and 10.6°, respectively, in this cohort. SVA, GT, TPA, TK, T1S, CL and PT significantly increased with age (p < 0.05). The females presented smaller T1S, C2–C7SVA and larger PI, PT than the males. The relationships between PI and TPA, GT, SS, LL could be presented as TPA = 0.411 * PI − 11.2 (R2 = 0.328, p < 0.001), GT = 0.483 * PI − 11.7 (R2 = 0.297, p < 0.001), SS = 0.354 * PI + 16.1 (R2 = 0.203, p < 0.001), LL = 0.588 * PI + 21.0 (R2 = 0.267, p < 0.001), respectively.


The normal values of sagittal parameters were presented and changed with age in Chinese asymptomatic population. The gender differences existed in sagittal parameters. The relationships between PI and other parameters were established which could be used for further research.

Graphic abstract

These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten

e.Med Interdisziplinär

Mit e.Med Interdisziplinär erhalten Sie Zugang zu allen CME-Fortbildungen und Fachzeitschriften auf Zusätzlich können Sie eine Zeitschrift Ihrer Wahl in gedruckter Form beziehen – ohne Aufpreis.

Weitere Produktempfehlungen anzeigen
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 273 kb)
Über diesen Artikel
  1. Sie können e.Med Orthopädie & Unfallchirurgie 14 Tage kostenlos testen (keine Print-Zeitschrift enthalten). Der Test läuft automatisch und formlos aus. Es kann nur einmal getestet werden.

Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.