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12.04.2019 | Original Paper

Age-dependent differences in clinical phenotype and prognosis in heart failure with mid-range ejection compared with heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Research in Cardiology
Autoren:
Xiaojing Chen, Gianluigi Savarese, Ulf Dahlström, Lars H. Lund, Michael Fu
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00392-019-01477-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Xiaojing Chen, Gianluigi Savarese equally contributed as first author. Lars H. Lund, Michael Fu equally contributed as last author.

Abstract

Background

HFmrEF has been recently proposed as a distinct HF phenotype. How HFmrEF differs from HFrEF and HFpEF according to age remains poorly defined. We aimed to investigate age-dependent differences in heart failure with mid-range (HFmrEF) vs. preserved (HFpEF) and reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction.

Methods and results

42,987 patients, 23% with HFpEF, 22% with HFmrEF and 55% with HFrEF, enrolled in the Swedish heart failure registry were studied. HFpEF prevalence strongly increased, whereas that of HFrEF strongly decreased with higher age. All cardiac comorbidities and most non-cardiac comorbidities increased with aging, regardless of the HF phenotype. Notably, HFmrEF resembled HFrEF for ischemic heart disease prevalence in all age groups, whereas regarding hypertension it was more similar to HFpEF in age ≥ 80 years, to HFrEF in age < 65 years and intermediate in age 65–80 years. All-cause mortality risk was higher in HFrEF vs. HFmrEF for all age categories, whereas HFmrEF vs. HFpEF reported similar risk in ≥ 80 years old patients and lower risk in < 65 and 65–80 years old patients. Predictors of mortality were more likely cardiac comorbidities in HFrEF but more likely non-cardiac comorbidities in HFpEF and HFmrEF with < 65 years. Differences among HF phenotypes for comorbidities were less pronounced in the other age categories.

Conclusion

HFmrEF appeared as an intermediate phenotype between HFpEF and HFrEF, but for some characteristics such as ischemic heart disease more similar to HFrEF. With aging, HFmrEF resembled more HFpEF. Prognosis was similar in HFmrEF vs. HFpEF and better than in HFrEF.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 40 kb)
392_2019_1477_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Literatur
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