Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem, frequently unrecognized among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and requires investigation and intervention. It is usually associated with lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It can also produce adverse clinical outcomes, such as changes in certain HIV markers, particularly CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads (VLs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse among PLWHA, its associated risk factors and effects on CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs in southern Brazil.
Between December 2012 and July 2013, 343 patients were interviewed at a reference hospital in southern Brazil. The instrument used was the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and a cutoff of eight points or more was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. The statistical analysis included a Poisson regression to evaluate the factors associated with alcohol use disorder, and a linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between AUDIT scores and CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs.
Alcohol abuse was present in 28.6% of the respondents, and possible dependence was present in 5%. The risk factors identified included being male, mixed or black skin color, low education and the use of intravenous or inhaled drugs. A higher AUDIT score was associated with a lower CD4 cell count but was not associated with higher HIV VL values.
Our results show the importance of screening for alcohol abuse in this group. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was high, and it was associated with socioeconomic factors and the use of illicit drugs. Moreover, AUDIT score negatively affected CD4 cell counts as well.
Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. A case-control study of HIV-associated pancreatic abnormalities during HAART era. Focus on emerging risk factors and specific management. Eur J Med Res. 2004;9:537–44. PubMed
Romeo J, Wärnberg J, Nova E, Díaz LE, Gómez-Martinez S, Marcos A. Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: a review. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(Suppl 1):S111–5. PubMed
Ministério da Saúde. Manual técnico para o diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV. 2013. Available at: http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/manual_tecnico_diagnostico_infeccao_hiv.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2017.
Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro MG. AUDIT - the alcohol use disorders indentification test - guidelines for use in primary care. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol facts and statistics. 2015. Available at: https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/alcoholfacts&stats/AlcoholFacts&Stats.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2017.
Swindle R, Heller K, Frank M. Differentiating the effects of positive and negative social transactions in HIV illness. J Comm Psychol. 2000;28:35–50. CrossRef
Fone DL, Farewell DM, White J, Lyons RA, Dunstan FD. Socioeconomic patterning of excess alcohol consumption and binge drinking: a cross-sectional study of multilevel associations with neighbourhood deprivation. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e002337.
Laranjeira R, Pinsky I, Zaleski M, Caetano R, Duarte PC. I levantamento nacional sobre os padrões de consumo de álcool na população Brasileira. Secretaria Nacional Antidrogas: Brasília; 2007.
Crimmins EM, Hayward MD, Seeman TE. Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health. In: Anderson NB, Bulatao RA, Cohen B, editors. Critical perspectives on racial and ethnic differences in health in late life. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004. p. 310–52.
Conen A, Fehr J, Glass TR, Furrer H, Weber R, Vernazza P, et al. Self-reported alcohol consumption and its association with adherence and outcome of antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV cohort study. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:349–57. PubMed
Henrich TJ, Lauder N, Desai MM, Sofair AN. Association of alcohol abuse and injection drug use with immunologic and virologic responses to HAART in HIV-positive patients from urban community health clinics. J Comm Health. 2008;33:69–77. CrossRef
- Alcohol use disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Brazil: prevalence, risk factors and biological markers outcomes
Cláudio Moss da Silva
Raúl Andrés Mendoza-Sassi
Luisa Dias da Mota
Maíba Mikhael Nader
Ana Maria Barral de Martinez
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II