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25.07.2017 | Original Article – Clinical Oncology | Ausgabe 11/2017 Open Access

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 11/2017

All-treatment array of hepatocellular carcinoma from initial diagnosis to death: observation of cumulative treatments

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology > Ausgabe 11/2017
Hae Moon, Ji Eun Choi, In Joon Lee, Tae Hyun Kim, Seong Hoon Kim, Young Hwan Ko, Hyun Boem Kim, Byung-Ho Nam, Joong-Won Park
Wichtige Hinweise
Hae Moon and Ji Eun Choi contributed equally to this work.



In clinical practice, most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma require subsequent treatments for remaining, progressing, or recurring tumors. We investigated all-treatment array and outcomes in an HCC cohort from initial diagnosis to death.


We enrolled 1687 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent initial diagnosis and treatment at the National Cancer Center, Korea, from January 2004 to December 2009.


In total, 1357 patients (80.4%) showed RPRTs during median 20.4-month follow-up. Initial transplantation resulted in the least rate (32.3%) of RPRTs. Median treatment frequency was 3.0 times (range 1–20) and 382 patients (27.3%) received treatments ≥6 times. The median treatment frequency was different based on four factors (p < 0.05): age, tumor stage, tumor type and initial treatment modality. Patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 received less frequent treatments. As the stage progressed from 0 to B, the median treatment frequency increased. Radiofrequency ablation as initial treatment was associated with the longest median treatment interval at 19.0 weeks, followed by resection at 14.1 weeks. The median treatment interval was significantly shorter as the stage progressed (p < 0.01). TACE was most frequently performed for RPRTs; the median number of subsequent TACE was 3 (range 1–19). Subsequent treatment array was very heterogeneous, and no certain pattern was found.


Our findings suggest that the survival outcome of patients with HCC is based on the results of cumulative multiple treatments rather than an initial treatment. It is time to consider prospective studies evaluating sequential treatment array of HCC.

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