The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-017-0820-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Imaging studies have provided valuable information in understanding the headache neuromechanism for medication-overuse headache (MOH), and the aim of this study is to investigate altered texture features of MR structural images over the whole brain in MOH using a 3-dimentional texture analysis.
Brain three-dimensional T1-weighted structural images were obtained from 44 MOH patients and 32 normal controls (NC). The imaging processing included two steps: gray matter (gray images) segment and a 3-dimensional texture features mapping. Voxel-based gray-level co-occurrence matrix (VGLCM) was performed to measure the texture parameters mapping including Contrast, Correlation, Energy, Entropy and inverse difference moment (IDM).
The texture parameters of increased Contrast and Entropy, decreased Energy and IDM were identified in cerebellar vermis of MOH patients compared to NCs. Increased Contrast and decreased Energy were found in left cerebellum. Increased Correlation located in left dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (L-dlPAG), right parahippocampal gyrus (R-PHG), and left middle frontal gyrus (L-MFG) and decreased Correlation located in right superior parietal lobule(R-SPL). Disease duration was positively correlated with Contrast of vermis and negatively correlated with Correlation of R-SPL.HAMD score was negatively correlated with Correlation of R-PHG. MoCA score was positively correlated with Correlation of R-SPL.
The altered textures in gray matter related to pain discrimination and modulation, affective and cognitive processing were helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of MOH. Texture analysis using VGLCM is a sensitive and efficient method to detect subtle gray matter changes in MOH.
Additional file 1: The voxel-based gray level co-occurrence matrix (VGLCM) was introduced as follows: Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is a well-known statistical texture analysis method in 2D gray level image. It also can be extended to define texture features on 3D gray level image. (DOCX 16 kb)
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- Alteration of gray matter texture features over the whole brain in medication-overuse headache using a 3-dimentional texture analysis
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