The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
RMV participated in the study design and coordination, sample collection, and immunohistochemistry experiments; performed qRT-PCR assays and their data analysis; performed statistical analysis of the data; and drafted the manuscript. NTO participated in the sample collection; performed immunohistochemistry experiments, qRT-PCR assays, and their data analyses; and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. PJB provided the clinical data; participated in the data interpretation; and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. PT participated in the study design and coordination; performed the sample collection, histological examination of the tissue sections, and digital imaging; participated in the data interpretation; and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. KP conceived the study; participated in the study design and coordination; participated in the data analysis and interpretation; and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Riina-Minna Väänänen is the corresponding author. Pekka Taimen and Kim Pettersson have a joint senior authorship.
PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG are commonly overexpressed biomarkers in prostate cancer, but reports have emerged demonstrating altered expression also in areas outside the tumour foci in cancerous prostates. Our aim was to measure PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG expression systematically in all regions of prostate cross-sections, matching the data to corresponding tissue morphology.
TMPRSS2-ERG and PCA3 mRNA levels were measured with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR assays in 270 samples from cross-sections of five radical prostatectomy specimens. ERG expression was examined by immunohistochemistry.
TMPRSS2-ERG mRNAs were detected in three patients and in 15 tissue samples in total. These included two carcinoma samples and 13 histologically benign samples, eight of which were located next to malignant tumours or PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) lesions and five of which did not reside in the vicinity of any evident carcinoma foci. ERG protein expression was limited to areas of TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA expression, but did not identify all of them. PCA3 expression was detected in all five cross-sections, with statistically significant, three-fold higher expression in carcinoma regions.
TMPRSS2-ERG expression was detected in carcinoma foci, regions next to them, and in samples not adjacent to carcinoma foci. Claimed as a cancer-associated phenomenon, this fusion gene measurement could, if validated with a larger cohort, be utilized as an addition to histological analysis to predict current or future cancer risk in men with negative biopsies. Molecular changes outside the carcinoma foci are also indicated for PCA3, as its expression was only moderately increased in the carcinoma regions.
Väänänen RM, Lilja H, Cronin A, Kauko L, Rissanen M, Kauko O, et al. Association of transcript levels of 10 established or candidate-biomarker gene targets with cancerous versus non-cancerous prostate tissue from radical prostatectomy specimens. Clin Biochem. 2013;46:670–4. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Bussemakers MJ, van Bokhoven A, Verhaegh GW, Smit FP, Karthaus HF, Schalken JA, et al. DD3: a new prostate-specific gene, highly overexpressed in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1999;59:5975–9. PubMed
de Kok JB, Verhaegh GW, Roelofs RW, Hessels D, Kiemeney LA, Aalders TW, et al. DD3 (PCA3), a very sensitive and specific marker to detect prostate tumors. Cancer Res. 2002;62:2695–8. PubMed
- Altered PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG expression in histologically benign regions of cancerous prostates: a systematic, quantitative mRNA analysis in five prostates
Natalia Tong Ochoa
Peter J. Boström
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Urologie
Meistgelesene Bücher in der Urologie
Mail Icon II