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Erschienen in: Inflammopharmacology 2/2024

17.02.2024 | Original Article

Ameliorative effects of Atriplex crassifolia (C.A.Mey) on pain and inflammation through modulation of inflammatory biomarkers and GC–MS-based metabolite profiling

verfasst von: Sarah Rehman, Saiqa Ishtiaq, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Sairah Hafeez Kamran

Erschienen in: Inflammopharmacology | Ausgabe 2/2024

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Abstract

Atriplex crassifolia (A. crassifolia) is a locally occurring member of Chenopodiaceae family that has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of joint pain and inflammation. The present study was focused to determine the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the plant. n-hexane (ACNH) and methanol (ACM) extracts of A. crassifolia were evaluated for in vitro anti-inflammatory potential using protein denaturation inhibition assay. In vivo anti-inflammatory potential was determined by oral administration of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day of extracts against carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models. Inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, NF-kB, IL-4, and IL-6 were estimated in blood samples of animals subjected to formalin model of inflammation. Analgesic activity was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick assay model. Phytochemical profiling was done by GC–mass spectrophotometer. The results of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity revealed that both ACNH and ACM displayed eminent inhibition of protein denaturation in concentration-dependent manner. In acute in vivo carrageenan-induced paw edema model, both extracts reduced inflammation at 5th and 6th hour of study (p < 0.05). A. crassifolia extracts exhibited significant inhibition against formalin-induced inflammation with maximum effect at 1000 mg/kg. ACNH and ACM significantly augmented the inflammatory mediators (p < 0.05). Levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and NF-kB were reduced, while those of IL-4 and IL-10 were upregulated. ACNH displayed maximum analgesic effect at 1000 mg/kg, while ACM showed potent activity at 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The extracts restored the CBC, TLC and CRP toward normal. GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of compounds like n-hexadecanoic acid, Phytol, (9E,11E)-octadecadienoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, 1-hexacosene, vitamin E, campesterol, stigmasterol, gamma sitosterol in both extracts. These compounds have been reported to suppress inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. The current study concludes that A. crassifolia possesses significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential owing to the presence of phytochemicals.

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Literatur
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Metadaten
Titel
Ameliorative effects of Atriplex crassifolia (C.A.Mey) on pain and inflammation through modulation of inflammatory biomarkers and GC–MS-based metabolite profiling
verfasst von
Sarah Rehman
Saiqa Ishtiaq
Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman
Sairah Hafeez Kamran
Publikationsdatum
17.02.2024
Verlag
Springer International Publishing
Erschienen in
Inflammopharmacology / Ausgabe 2/2024
Print ISSN: 0925-4692
Elektronische ISSN: 1568-5608
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-024-01430-1

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