The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-172) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
We declare that none of the investigators has any conflict of interest. None of the funders had any role in the evaluation design, data collection, analysis, interpretation, drafting of the manuscript or decision to publish.
PPC took the lead in designing and implementing the study, data analysis and in writing of the manuscript. YM, AM and DM participated in the implementation of various aspects of the adult mosquito and household parasitology surveys as well as data management. NJG, ADM, ZJM, TLR and SK supported the design and implementation of the various study aspects including data management. GFK was involved in designing the larviciding system that these vector monitoring systems are intended to support. YZ and NFL supported the PDA programming, data collection and management. SD contributed substantially to producing the maps and drafting of the manuscript. GFK supervised all aspects of the study design, implementation, data analysis and drafting of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
More sensitive and scalable entomological surveillance tools are required to monitor low levels of transmission that are increasingly common across the tropics, particularly where vector control has been successful. A large-scale larviciding programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is supported by a community-based (CB) system for trapping adult mosquito densities to monitor programme performance.
An intensive and extensive CB system for routine, longitudinal, programmatic surveillance of malaria vectors and other mosquitoes using the Ifakara Tent Trap (ITT-C) was developed in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and validated by comparison with quality assurance (QA) surveys using either ITT-C or human landing catches (HLC), as well as a cross-sectional survey of malaria parasite prevalence in the same housing compounds.
Community-based ITT-C had much lower sensitivity per person-night of sampling than HLC (Relative Rate (RR) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)] = 0.079 [0.051, 0.121], P < 0.001 for Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 0.153 [0.137, 0.171], P < 0.001 for Culicines) but only moderately differed from QA surveys with the same trap (0.536 [0.406,0.617], P = 0.001 and 0.747 [0.677,0.824], P < 0.001, for An. gambiae or Culex respectively). Despite the poor sensitivity of the ITT per night of sampling, when CB-ITT was compared with QA-HLC, it proved at least comparably sensitive in absolute terms (171 versus 169 primary vectors caught) and cost-effective (153US$ versus 187US$ per An. gambiae caught) because it allowed more spatially extensive and temporally intensive sampling (4284 versus 335 trap nights distributed over 615 versus 240 locations with a mean number of samples per year of 143 versus 141). Despite the very low vectors densities (Annual estimate of about 170 An gambiae s.l bites per person per year), CB-ITT was the only entomological predictor of parasite infection risk (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 4.43[3.027,7. 454] per An. gambiae or Anopheles funestus caught per night, P =0.0373).
CB trapping approaches could be improved with more sensitive traps, but already offer a practical, safe and affordable system for routine programmatic mosquito surveillance and clusters could be distributed across entire countries by adapting the sample submission and quality assurance procedures accordingly.
Additional file 1: Table S1. Standardized UMCP forms for routine adult mosquito surveillance teams to help control for and minimize data fabrication by CORPs. (DOCX 13 KB)12936_2012_2233_MOESM1_ESM.docx
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- An affordable, quality-assured community-based system for high-resolution entomological surveillance of vector mosquitoes that reflects human malaria infection risk patterns
Prosper P Chaki
Alpha D Malishee
Zacharia J Mtema
Samson S Kiware
Neil F Lobo
Tanya L Russell
Nicodem J Govella
Gerry F Killeen
- BioMed Central
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