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01.12.2017 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Archives of Public Health 1/2017

An overview of the epidemiology and emergence of influenza A infection in humans over time

Archives of Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2017
Chau Minh Bui, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Dillon Charles Adam, C. Raina MacIntyre
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s13690-017-0182-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


In recent years multiple novel influenza A strains have emerged in humans. We reviewed publically available data to summarise epidemiological characteristics of distinct avian influenza viruses known to cause human infection and describe changes over time. Most recently identified zoonotic strains have emerged in China (H7N9, H5N6, H10N8) – these strains have occurred mostly in association with visiting a live bird market. Most zoonotic AIVs and swine influenza variants typically cause mild infections in humans however severe illness and fatalities are associated with zoonotic H5N6, H10N8, H7N9 and H5N1 serotypes, and the H1N1 1918 Spanish Influenza. The changing landscape of avian influenza globally indicates a need to reassess the risk of a pandemic influenza outbreak of zoonotic origin.
Additional file 1: Table S1. Epidemiological features of reported outbreaks or isolate cases of distinct avian influenza serotypes. This is a table showing the information we have collected on reported outbreaks or isolate cases of distinct avian influenza strains. (DOCX 70 kb)
Additional file 2: Text 1. The following is the reference list for Table  1 and Additional file 1: Table S1. This is a list of references showing where information was collected from – the number of the reference corresponds to numbers in Table  1 and Additional file 1: Table S1. (DOCX 22 kb)
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