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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Analysis for genotyping Duffy blood group in inhabitants of Sudan, the Fourth Cataract of the Nile

Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Agnieszka Kempińska-Podhorodecka, Oktawian Knap, Arleta Drozd, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Miroslaw Parafiniuk, Milosz Parczewski, Andrzej Ciechanowicz
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

AKP and AC designed and implemented the survey and wrote the article. OMK and MP5 were responsible for selection of the patients and collect of the samples. AKP, AD, MP6 were responsible for genotyping. AKP and MK conducted the data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Genetic polymophisms of the Duffy antigen receptor for the chemokines (DARC) gene successfully protected against blood stage infection by Plasmodium vivax infection. The Fy (a-, b-) phenotype is predominant among African populations, particularly those originating from West Africa, and it is rare among non-African populations. The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of four Duffy blood groups based on SNPs (T-33C, G125A, G298A and C5411T) in two local tribes of Sudanese Arabs, the Shagia and Manasir, which are both from the region of the Fourth Nile cataract in Sudan.


An analysis of polymorphisms was performed on 217 individuals (126 representatives of the Shagia tribe and 91 of the Manasir). Real-time PCR and TaqMan Genotyping Assays were used to study the prevalence of alleles and genotypes.


The analysis of allelic and genotype frequency in the T-33C polymorphisms demonstrated a significant dominance of the C allele and CC genotype (OR = 0.53 [0.32-0.88]; p = 0.02) in both tribes. The G125A polymorphism is associated with phenotype Fy(a-, b-) and was identified in 83% of Shagia and 77% of Manasir. With regard to G298A polymorphisms, the genotype frequencies were different between the tribes (p = 0,002) and no single AA homozygote was found. Based on four SNPs examined, 20 combinations of genotypes for the Shagia and Manasir tribes were determined. The genotype CC/AA/GG/CT occurred most often in Shagia tribe (45.9%) but was rare in the Manasir tribe (6.6%) (p < 0.001 Shagia versus Manasir). The FY*A ES allele was identified in both analysed tribes. The presence of individuals with the FY*A/FY*A genotype was demonstrated only in the Shagia tribe.


This is probably the first report showing genotypically Duffy-negative people who carry both FY*B ES and FY*A ES . The identification of the FY*A ES allele in both tribes may be due to admixture of the non-African genetic background. Taken as a whole, allele and genotype frequencies between the Shagia and the Manasir were statistically different. However, the presence of individuals with the FY*A/FY*A genotype was demonstrated only in the Shagia tribe.
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