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28.04.2018 | Review Article | Ausgabe 7/2018

International Orthopaedics 7/2018

Animal models of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head—a comprehensive research review up to 2018

International Orthopaedics > Ausgabe 7/2018
Jianzhong Xu, Hanpu Gong, Shitao Lu, Matthey J. Deasey, Quanjun Cui


Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a significant cause of both pain and disability that often affects young adults during what ought to be their most productive age. Two broad categories of ONFH exist: traumatic and non-traumatic. Traumatic ONFH results from acute mechanical disruption of the femoral head’s blood supply. Many factors that increase the risk of non-traumatic osteonecrosis have been identified. Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH) is the most common form of non-traumatic ONFH. Many hypotheses as to the pathogenesis of SONFH have been proposed, including intravascular thrombosis, abnormal fat metabolism, intramedullary adipocyte hypertrophy, and osteoporosis; however, the exact mechanism of SONFH is still not clearly understood. Animal models using rats, mice, rabbits, chickens, pigs, and emus have been used to study SONFH. Unfortunately, these models each have limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reproducible model that better simulates human disease. The present review is intended to summarize the currently available models, evaluative indicators, and application of current understanding to both the prevention and treatment of SONFH.

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