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05.02.2018 | Original Article | Ausgabe 4/2018

Inflammopharmacology 4/2018

Anti-inflammatory activity of nanoemulsions of essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: in vitro and in zebrafish studies

Zeitschrift:
Inflammopharmacology > Ausgabe 4/2018
Autoren:
Raphaelle Sousa Borges, Hady Keita, Brenda Lorena Sánchez Ortiz, Tafnis Ingret dos Santos Sampaio, Irlon Maciel Ferreira, Emerson Silva Lima, Márcia de Jesus Amazonas da Silva, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Anna Eliza Maciel de Faria Mota Oliveira, Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição, Alex Bruno Lobato Rodrigues, Arlindo César Matias Pereira Filho, Andrés Navarrete Castro, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho

Abstract

The essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L. (OERO) has bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potency of nanoemulsions containing essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (NOERO, NECHA, NECULT, and NECOM) in vitro and in vivo. This study was accomplished in a quantitative format through tests with diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cellular antioxidant activity (CCA), determination of nitric oxide production, cellular viability and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish. OERO’s were submitted to the analysis-coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), which highlighted 1,8-cineol and camphor as major compounds. NOEROs were obtained by a low-energy method and presenting the medium size smaller than 200 nm. The efficiency of encapsulation by spectrometry and gas chromatographic analysis was 67.61 and 75.38%, respectively. In the CCA assay, all of the samples presented percentage values of inhibition similar to the quercetin pattern, indicating antioxidant activity. In the test for determination of NO·, all of the samples inhibited the production of NO· when compared to LPS, and NOEROS were more effective than OEROS to 5 µg/mL. In the cell viability assay, the cells remained viable after contact with the samples, demonstrating an absence of cytotoxicity. This study showed that all nanoemulsions (NECHA, NECULT, and NECOM) showed no toxicity to macrophages, besides demonstrating antioxidant activity and potentiation of the essential oil effect in the proliferation of viable fibroblasts. Nanoemulsions has also shown the ability to potentiate the anti-inflammatory action of essential oils by exerting immunomodulatory activity by inhibiting the production of the pro-inflammatory mediator nitric oxide. The results obtained with NECHA in zebrafish confirm the hypothesis that prominent terpenic compounds, alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and camphor, became more available at the target sites, inhibiting the inflammatory process in this animal species.

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