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Many plants of genus Abutilon are traditionally used for treatment of inflammation, bronchitis, piles, gonorrhea, diabetes and fever. Abutilon hirtum is traditionally used to ease the pain of kidney gravel, to treat diarrhoea, cough and toothache, to cure bladder inflammations, wounds and ulcers and as an antipyretic, demulcent, diuretic and mouth wash. The aim of the study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic effects of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet leaves.
Air dried powder of A. hirtum leaves were extracted using 95% ethanol and fractionated successively with petroleum ether, chloroform and finally with ethyl acetate. The extracts were concentrated to afford petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions and were investigated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic activities using carrageenan-induced paw edema, hot plate, yeast -induced pyrexia and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia methods, respectively.
The total ethanolic extract and the chloroform fraction exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with a percentage of inhibition 50.8% which is close to that of indomethacin (52.4%). The aqueous extract exhibited the maximum analgesic activity (216.6%) with a rapid onset and a longer duration followed by petroleum ether and chloroform fractions and total extract (189.8, 186.9 and 183.0%, respectively), which is almost similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid (186.4%).
The total ethanolic extract showed higher activity compared to the used standard acetylsalicylic acid with a rapid onset (30 min) and a longer duration exhibiting the maximum activity. The crude polysaccharides fraction showed a significant lowering in blood glucose level (81.08%). The total extract and petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited a significant anti-diabetic activity after 5 h (47.49, 47.79, 50.04, 49.80 and 46.36%, respectively) compared with that of metformin (55.45%).
Abutilon hirtum extract and fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory analgesic, antipyretic and antipyretic activities which may be attributed by the presence of active phytoconstituents.