X.-B. Zhang, Y.-Y. Yang, H.-Q. Zeng and L.-D. Chen contributed equally to this work.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cancer incidence and mortality. The underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the influence of intermittent hypoxia (IH), a novel hallmark of OSA, on tumor and to access the anti-tumor effect of endostatin on a mouse model with OSA.
The C57BL/6 J mice were randomly classified into four groups: control (normoxia) (CTL), control plus endostatin (CTL + ED), IH, and IH plus endostatin (IH + ED). Mice in IH and IH + ED groups were subjected to IH 8 h per day in 5 weeks. Lewis lung cancer cells were injected into the flank of each mouse after 1 week of IH exposure. Endostatin was also intraperitoneally injected after tumor volume reached about 200 mm3. The maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) were detected by micro-positron emission tomography–computed tomography (micro-PET–CT) imaging prior and post-endostatin administration. Microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined for evaluating the anti-tumor effect of endostatin among the normoxia and IH conditions.
Mice had higher SUVmax in the IH group than the CTL group (p < 0.01). When compared with mice in the CTL group, those in the IH group had significantly greater MVD values (p < 0.001). The SUVmax can be attenuated by endostatin both in the CTL (p < 0.01) and IH conditions (p < 0.001). When compared with CTL group, mice in the IH group had increased MVD values (p < 0.001) and VEGF expression both at mRNA (p < 0.05) and protein levels (p < 0.001 in western blotting results). Treatment with endostatin attenuated serum and tissue VEGF levels, lowering the MVD values. As compared to normoxia condition, the endostatin-therapeutic effects were more significant under the IH condition (p < 0.05 in western blotting results).
Micro-PET–CT imaging is a promising non-invasive technique to evaluate the tumor metabolic characteristics under IH condition in vivo. The anti-tumor effect of endostatin under IH condition is superior to that of the normoxia condition.
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- Anti-tumor effect of endostatin in a sleep-apnea mouse model with tumor
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Clinical and Translational Oncology
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