Skip to main content

01.12.2016 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2016 Open Access

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2016

Antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated from nasopharynx of preschool children with acute respiratory tract infection in Lithuania

BMC Infectious Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2016
Indrė Stacevičienė, Sigita Petraitienė, Daiva Vaičiūnienė, Tomas Alasevičius, Jūratė Kirslienė, Vytautas Usonis
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

VU conceived, initiated and designed the study, prepared all the study documents, was leading investigator. SP and DV coordinated the study, enrolled the patients in Children’s Hospital, Affiliate of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos. TA and IS were responsible for data management, performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. JK was responsible for isolating Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotyping and testing for antimicrobial susceptibility at the microbiology laboratory. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Increasing pneumococcal resistance to commonly used antibiotics and multidrug resistance is a serious public health concern. Data on distribution of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn) strains among children in Lithuania are limited. We evaluated the circulation of SPn serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility among preschool children in Lithuania before the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal vaccination.


A prospective study was carried out from February 2012 to March 2013 in five cities of Lithuania. A total of 900 children under six years of age who presented to primary care centre or a hospital emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained and cultured for SPn. Positive samples (n = 367) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Associations of pneumococcal non-susceptibility with study site, season, age, sex, attendance of day care centre and treatment with antimicrobials (between one and six months prior the study) were evaluated.


About a half (56.7 %) of SPn strains were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. Pneumococcal non-susceptibility to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole was 15.8, 21.3, 16.9 and 27.3 %, respectively. None of the tested isolates was resistant to norfloxacin or vancomycin. We found a geographical variation of pneumococcal resistance within the cities of the country. Age, sex, the attendance of day care centre and treatment with antimicrobials prior the study was not significantly associated with a carriage of non-susceptible SPn strains. Among non-susceptible SPn serotypes 67.9 %–82.4 % were present in currently available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.


The rates of nasopharyngeal SPn susceptibility to penicillin and macrolides are still high among preschool children in Lithuania, however they are lower compared with previous studies. A strict policy with respect to antibiotic prescription together with widespread use of vaccination could potentially reduce the carriage rate of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in our country.
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2016

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2016 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Innere Medizin und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.

© Springer Medizin