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19.11.2018 | Ausgabe 2/2019 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 2/2019

Appraisal of patient-reported outcome measures in analogous diseases and recommendations for use in phase II and III clinical trials of pyruvate kinase deficiency

Quality of Life Research > Ausgabe 2/2019
M. S. Salek, T. Ionova, J. R. Johns, E. N. Oliva
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-018-2025-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a rare disease and understanding of its epidemiology and associated burden remains limited. With no current curative therapy, clinical manifestations can be life threatening, clinically managed by maintaining adequate hemoglobin levels through transfusion and subsequent support, but with frequent complications. Treatment goals are to maintain/improve the patient’s quality of life. With new therapies, reliable, valid, and relevant patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools are required for use in clinical trials.


Systematic literature search identified no current PRO tools for capturing/measuring the impact of PKD and treatments in clinical trials. Therefore, the search strategy was revised to consider conditions analogous to PKD in terms of symptoms and impacts that might serve as parallels to the experience in PKD; this included sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and hemolytic anemia. Psychometric properties, strengths, and weakness of selected appropriate PRO instruments were compared, and recommendations made for choice of PRO tools.


In adult populations, EORTC QLQ C30 and SF-36v2 are recommended, the former being a basic minimum, covering generic HRQoL, and core symptoms such as fatigue. In pediatric populations, PedsQL Generic Core Scale to measure HRQoL and PedsQL MFS scale to measure fatigue are recommended.


Some symptoms/life impacts may be unique to PKD and not observable in analogous conditions. A ‘Physico-Psychosocial Model’ derived from the ‘Medical Model’ is proposed to form the basis for a hypothesized conceptual framework to address the development of PKD-specific PRO instruments.

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