Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are recommended for empirical antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients requiring ICU admission. However, their extensive use could promote the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Our aim was to assess whether the use of 3GCs in patients with CAP requiring ICU admission was justified.
We assessed all patients with CAP who required ICU admission during a 7-year period. We recorded empirical and definitive antibiotic therapies and susceptibility of causative pathogens. Amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate (A/C) susceptibilities as well as amikacin susceptibility of A/C-resistant strains were recorded.
From January 2007 to March 2014, 391 patients were included in the study. Empirical 3GCs were used in 215 patients (55%). Among 267 patients with microbiologically documented CAP (68%), 241 received a beta-lactam as definitive therapy, and of those, 3CGs were chosen for 43 patients (18%). Amoxicillin or A/C was active against isolated pathogens in 159 patients (66%), while 39 patients (16%) required a beta-lactam with a broader spectrum than 3GCs. Ninety-four per cent of A/C-resistant strains were amikacin susceptible.
In ICU patients with CAP, 3GCs given on an empirical basis are changed, according to microbiological documentation, for another beta-lactam in 82% of cases especially to A/C in the absence of resistance risk factor. In patients evidencing risk factors for A/C-resistant strains infection, 3GCs or antipseudomonal beta-lactams including carbapenem associated with amikacin in the most severe patients seem a relevant empirical antibiotic therapy. This strategy could decrease 3GCs’ use.
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- Are third-generation cephalosporins unavoidable for empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients who require ICU admission? A retrospective study
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