The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-97) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
NV, JK and BS conceived the idea. NV was the PI and study coordinator. NV and BS also supervised all the field sites. AD was involved in overall supervision. AA, BHS, TKB, PKT, SS were involved in field work. PS did the molecular analysis. BS2 was involved in quality assurance of microscopy. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended for the treatment of falciparum malaria by the World Health Organization. Though India has already switched to ACT for treating falciparum malaria, there is need to have multiple options of alternative forms of ACT. A randomized trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of the fixed dose combination of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria for the first time in India. The study sites are located in malaria-endemic, chloroquine-resistant areas.
This was an open label, randomized trial conducted at two sites in India from January 2007 to January 2008. Patients between six months and 60 years of age having Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection were randomly allocated to ASAQ and AQ arms. The primary endpoint was 28-day PCR-corrected parasitological cure rate.
Three hundred patients were enrolled at two participating centres, Ranchi, Jharkhand and Rourkela, Odisha. Two patients in AQ arm had early treatment failure while there was no early treatment failure in ASAQ arm. Late treatment failures were seen in 13 and 12 patients in ASAQ and AQ arms, respectively. The PCR-corrected cure rates in intent-to-treat population were 97.51% (94.6-99.1%) in ASAQ and 88.65% (81.3-93.9%) in AQ arms. In per-protocol population, they were 97.47% (94.2-99.2%) and 88.30% (80-94%) in ASAQ and AQ arms respectively. Seven serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in five patients, of which two were reported as related to the treatment. All SAEs resolved without sequel.
The fixed dose combination of ASAQ was found to be efficacious and safe treatment for P. falciparum malaria. Amodiaquine also showed acceptable efficacy, making it a suitable partner of artesunate. The combination could prove to be a viable option in case India opts for fixed dose combination ACT.
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- Artesunate-amodiaquine fixed dose combination for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India
Anupkumar R Anvikar
Bhartendu H Shahi
Prajesh K Tyagi
Tarit K Bose
Surya K Sharma
Jean R Kiechel
Aditya P Dash
- BioMed Central
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