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Genome wide association studies of patients with European descent have identified common variants associated with risk of reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A panel of eight variants were selected to evaluate their association and prevalence in a Saudi Arabian patient cohort with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Eight genetic variants in four genes (SHROOM3, MYH9, SLC7A9, and CST3) were genotyped in 160 CKD patients and 189 ethnicity-matched healthy controls. Genetic variants were tested for association with the development of CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2) and effects were compared with results obtained from 133,413 participants in the CKD genetics consortium. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate the role of these eight variants in improving prediction of CKD development.
All eight variants were present in Saudi populations with minor allele frequency ranging from 16 to 46%. The risk variant in all four genes demonstrated the same direction of effect as observed in European populations. One variant, rs4821480, in MYH9 was significantly associated with increased risk of development of CKD (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.22–2.36, P = 0.002), but the additional variants were not statistically significant given our modest sample size.
CKD risk variants identified in European populations are present in Saudis. We did not find evidence to suggest heterogeneity of effect size compared to previously published estimates in European populations. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in predicting the CKD using models with either FGF23 and vitamin D or FGF23, vitamin D level, and MYH9 genotypes (AUC = 0.93, 95% CI 0.90–0.95, P < 0.0001).