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Jun-Won Yun and Euna Kwon contributed equally to this work.
Seed of mature Croton tiglium Linne, also known as Tiglium seed (TS), has been widely used as a natural product due to its several health beneficial properties including anti-tumor and antifungal activities. Despite its ethnomedicinal beneficial properties, toxicological information regarding TS extract, especially its long-term toxicity, is currently limited. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of TS extract in rats after oral administration following test guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
Toxicological properties of TS extract were evaluated by toxicity assays to determine its single-dose acute toxicity (125, 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg), 14-day repeated-dose toxicity (125, 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg) and 13-week repeated-dose toxicity (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats and F344 rats. Hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathological parameters were analyzed to determine its median lethal dose (LD50) and no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL).
Oral single dose up to 2000 mg/kg of TS extract resulted in no mortalities or abnormal clinical signs. In 13-week toxicity study, TS extract exhibited no dose-related changes (mortality, body weight, food/water consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, organ weight, or histopathology) at dose up to 500 mg/kg, the highest dosage level suggested based on 14-day repeat-dose oral toxicity study.
Acute oral LD50 of TS extract in rats was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. NOAEL of TS extract administered orally was determined to be 500 mg/kg/day in both male and female rats. Results from these acute and subchronic toxicity assessments of TS extract under Good Laboratory Practice regulations indicate that TS extract appears to be safe for human consumption.