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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

Zeitschrift:
Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Zakia M I Ali, Mahfoud Bakli, Albin Fontaine, Nawal Bakkali, Vinh Vu Hai, Stephane Audebert, Yvan Boublik, Frederic Pagès, Franck Remoué, Christophe Rogier, Christophe Fraisier, Lionel Almeras
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-439) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Zakia M I Ali, Mahfoud Bakli contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AL and RC conceived and designed the experiments. ZA and BM performed the experiments. AL, FA, RC, FC and PF analysed the data. BN, AS, BY, RF, VHV contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. AL, FC, FA and RC wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis). Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites.

Methods

For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6) and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc) from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc) and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc) were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46) that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45).

Results

The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein.

Conclusion

This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Paired-wise alignment of 5′-nucleotidase proteins from An. gambiae and An.funestus. (TIFF 317 KB)
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Additional file 2: Comparison of sequence alignment of Culicidae protein members from the 5′ nucleotidase/Apyrase family to 5′-nucleotidase proteins from An. gambiae (gi|4582528). (DOC 40 KB)
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Additional file 3: Phylogram tree constructed from the alignment of the SG6 protein sequences from Anopheles species. (TIFF 240 KB)
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Additional file 4: Statistical analysis of variations in IgG responses per site against the anopheline salivary proteins.(DOC 64 KB)
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Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
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Authors’ original file for figure 3
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Authors’ original file for figure 4
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Authors’ original file for figure 5
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Authors’ original file for figure 6
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