Skip to main content

01.12.2017 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

BMC Ophthalmology 1/2017

Assessment of biomarkers using multiplex assays in aqueous humor of patients with diabetic retinopathy

BMC Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 1/2017
Hui Chen, Xiongze Zhang, Nanying Liao, Feng Wen



With the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become a leading health problem worldwide. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and several vascular, inflammatory, and neuronal mechanisms are involved. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of immune and inflammatory biomarkers in the aqueous humor of patients with different severities of DR and to analyze the correlations between Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and these biomarkers, and between IL-6 and the severity of the disease.


Aqueous humor samples were obtained from 51 non-diabetic patients and 151 diabetic patients. Levels of 45 different cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured using a multiplex bead immunoassay.


IL-6, IL-8, Inducible Protein-10 (IP-10), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the aqueous humor of the DR patients compared to the non-diabetic patients, while the concentrations of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-9, IL-21, IL-23, IL-27, IL-31, RANTES, interferon-α, growth regulated oncogene (GRO), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the DR patients. The IL-6 levels increased as the severity of DR increased. In addition, the IL-6 level positively correlated with the IL-8, HGF and LIF levels, while negatively with the IL-31and GRO levels.


These findings suggest that inflammation and immune response may contribute to the pathogenesis of DR, and these biomarkers may potentially be new therapeutic targets for DR.
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2017

BMC Ophthalmology 1/2017 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Augenheilkunde