The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-9255-9-18) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no completing interests.
Designed the experiments / the study: PK, BJU, RR, EV. Analyzed and interpreted the data: PK, BJ, TG, RR. Collected data / did experiments for the study: PK, BJ. Enrolled patients/conducted the surgery: BJU, EV. Contributed to the writing of the paper: PK, BJU, TG, RR, EV. Agree with manuscript’s results and conclusions. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Activation of the endothelium, complement activation and generation of cytokines are known events during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) that mediate tissue injury. Our aim was to elucidate their respective participation at the onset of the reperfusion phase. Tourniquet application in hand surgery causes short-term ischemia, followed by reperfusion and was therefore used as the model in this study.
Ten patients were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. A tourniquet was placed on the upper arm and inflated to 250 mmHg for 116 ± 16 min, during which the surgery was performed. Venous blood and tissue samples from the surgical area were taken at baseline as well as 0, 2, and 10 min after reperfusion and analyzed for the following parameters: Endothelial integrity and/or activation were analyzed by measuring heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 in serum, and vWF, heparan sulfate proteoglycan as well as CD31on tissue. Complement activation was determined by C3a and C4d levels in plasma, levels of C1-inhibitor in serum, and IgG, IgM, C3b/c, and C4b/c deposition on tissue. Cytokines and growth factors IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, TNFα, VEGF, and PDGF bb were measured in the serum. Finally, CK-MM levels were determined in plasma as a measure for muscle necrosis.
Markers for endothelial activation and/or integrity as well as complement activation showed no significant changes until 10 min reperfusion. Among the measured cytokines, IL-6, IL-7, IL-17, TNFα, GM-CSF, VEGF, and PDGF bb were significantly increased at 10 min reperfusion with respect to baseline. CK-MM showed a rise from baseline at the onset of reperfusion (p < 0.001) and dropped again at 2 min (p < 0.01) reperfusion, suggesting ischemic muscle damage.
In this clinical model of I/R injury no damage to the endothelium, antibody deposition or complement activation were observed during early reperfusion. However, an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors was shown, suggesting a contribution of these molecules in the early stages of I/R injury.
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- Assessment of endothelium and inflammatory response at the onset of reperfusion injury in hand surgery
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