The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00415-016-8130-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Depression is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). A thorough understanding of factors associated with depressive symptomatology may facilitate early detection and guide future intervention strategies. The objective of the study was to determine associated and predictive factors of depression in patients with PD. Analyses were performed in data of the SCOPA-PROPARK cohort, a 5-year hospital-based longitudinal cohort of over 400 PD patients who have been examined annually. Linear mixed models using data of all patients were used to identify factors associated with longitudinal changes in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. A survival analysis using data of patients without depression at baseline was performed to identify risk factors for future depression (i.e. BDI ≥ 15). The proportion of patients with depression was approximately 20 % and remained stable during follow-up, with approximately half of cases showing a persistent course. Female gender, more severe disability, more severe motor fluctuations, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction, poorer nighttime sleep and daytime sleepiness were independently associated with higher BDI scores over time. Higher baseline BDI score, daytime sleepiness and a higher levodopa dosage were risk factors for future depression. Depression is common in PD, where it may follow a persistent or non-persistent course. Apart from motor fluctuations and levodopa dose, depressive symptoms in PD are mainly associated with factors of non-dopaminergic origin. This suggests that depression in PD is an inherent consequence of the progressive pathobiology of the disease, which may render its treatment with currently available treatment options difficult.
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- Associated and predictive factors of depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease
Jacobus J. van Hilten
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg