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01.12.2016 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2016 Open Access

BMC Nephrology 1/2016

Association between lower serum bicarbonate and renal hyperfiltration in the general population with preserved renal function: a cross-sectional study

BMC Nephrology > Ausgabe 1/2016
Minseon Park, Rina So, Kwon Wook Joo, Hyung-Jin Yoon
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

MP and HJY designed the study and prepared the manuscript, RS collected and analyzed the data and KWJ provided clinical and scientific interpretation of the results. All the authors have approved the manuscript and agreed to its submission to your esteemed journal.



Lower serum bicarbonate, mainly due to the modern Western-style diet, and renal hyperfiltration (RHF) are both independently associated with higher mortality in the general population with preserved renal function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between serum bicarbonate and RHF.


The health data of 41,886 adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 were analyzed. The eGFR was calculated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation and RHF was defined as eGFR with adjusted residuals > sex-specific 95th percentile.


The adjusted mean of eGFR was lower in the highest quintile of serum bicarbonate than in other quintiles, after adjusting for confounders. A lower percentile rank of serum bicarbonate was associated with higher odds of RHF. The odds ratio (OR) for RHF in the lowest quintile of serum bicarbonate was 1.39 (95 % confidence interval, 95 % CI, 1.11–1.75) compared to the highest, after adjusting for confounders. With subgroup analysis, the association was prominent in participants with a body mass index >25 kg/m2 (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.32–2.95 in the lowest quintile compared to the highest), compared to those with a body mass index ≤25 kg/m2 (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.89–1.56 in the lowest quintile compared to the highest).


This study observed an association between lower serum bicarbonate and higher odds of RHF and the possible differential effect of obesity in this association. It is necessary to confirm the association between lower serum bicarbonate and RHF and its causality.
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